Symptoms of disease - violation of the gait
Walking is one of the most difficult and at the same time, the usual types of motor activity.
The cyclic stepping movement launch of the lumbar-sacral centers of the spinal cord, govern - the cerebral cortex, basal nuclei, structure of the brain stem and cerebellum. In this regulation participates proprioceptive, vestibular and visual feedback afferentation.
The gait of the human being is a harmonious interaction of the muscles, bones, eyes and the inner ear. Coordination of movements engaged in the brain and Central nervous system.
In the event of violations in those or other departments of the Central nervous system may cause various motor disorders: shuffling gait, sharp jerky movement or difficulty bending the joints.
Abasia (Greek ἀ - prefix with a value of absence, the non-without - + βάσις - walking gait) - also disabasia - violation of gait (walk) or the inability to walk because of rough infringements of gait.
1. In the broad sense of the term abasia means gait disturbance lesions involving various levels of the system organization of motor act, and includes such types of infringements of gait, as atactic gait, spastic-atactic, hypokinetic gait (in parkinsonizme because of emerging supranuclear palsy and other diseases), apraxia walk (frontal disabasia), idiopathic senile disabasia, peroneal gait, duck walk, walking with a pronounced lordosis in the lumbar area, hyperkinetic walk, walk in diseases of the locomotor system, disabasia in mental retardation, dementia, psychogenic disorders, iatrogenic and drug disabasia, gait disturbances, epilepsy, and paroxysmal dyskinesia.
2. In neurology often use the term astasia-abasia, when integrative sensomotor violations, often in the elderly, connected with the violation of the postural or locomotor synergies or postural reflexes, and often a variant of the equilibrium of (astasia) is combined with the violation of the walk (abasia). In particular distinguish the frontal disabasia (apraxia walk) in the defeat of the frontal lobes of the brain (as a result of stroke, discirculatory encephalopathy, normotensive hydrocephalus), disabasia in neurodegenerative diseases, senile disabasia, and also infringements of gait, observed in hysteria (a psychogenic disabasia).
Which diseases there is violation of the gait
A role in the occurrence of the violation of gait disorders belongs to the eye and the inner ear.
In older people with worsening of vision appear gait disorders.
A person with an infectious disease of the inner ear can detect balance disorders, which leads to the violation of his gait.
One of the most frequent sources of infringements of gait are functional disorders of the Central nervous system. This may be a condition associated with the reception of sedative drugs, alcohol and abuse of drugs. Apparently, a certain role in the violations of gait plays a poor diet, especially in older people. Deficiency of vitamin B12 often causes a feeling of numbness of the extremities and balance disorders that lead to a change of gait. Finally, any disease or condition in which there is a defeat of the nerves or muscles, may cause gait disturbance.
One of such States is an infringement of the intervertebral disc in the lower parts of the back. This condition is treatable.
To the number of more serious injuries, accompanied by changes in gait, are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson's disease.
Diabetes often causes loss of sensation in both legs. Many people suffering from diabetes, losing the ability to determine the position of the feet against the floor. Therefore, they have observed the instability of the situation and gait disturbance.
Some diseases are accompanied by violation of the gait. If neurological symptoms no, the cause of human gait difficult to find even the experienced doctor.
Gemiplegical gait is observed in spastic hemiparesis. In severe cases, it is characteristic of the changed position of the extremities, shoulder is given and deployed inside of the elbow, wrist and fingers of the hand bent, foot extension in the hip, knee and ankle joints. Step of the affected leg begins with the abstraction of her hips, and his movements in a circle, body when it is rejected in the opposite direction ("the hand of the requests, the foot is twisted").
At a moderate spasticity position of the hand fine, but move it to the beat of walking limited. Affected leg badly bent and rolled out.
Gemiplegical gait - frequent residual violation after a stroke.
When paraparetic walk patient rearranges both legs slowly and carefully, on a circle - the same as when hemiparesis. In many patients the foot during walking overlap, like a pair of scissors.
Paraparetic gait is observed when the lesion of the spinal cord and a children's cerebral paralysis.
Cock's gait is caused by insufficient rear bending of the foot. In step forward foot partially or completely hangs, so the patient is forced to lift the leg above - so that your fingers do not infringe on the floor.
Unilateral violation of it happens in the lumbar-sacral radiculopathy, neuropathy sciatic nerve or peroneal nerve; bilateral when polyneuropathy and lumbar-sacral radiculopathy.
Duck walk due to the weakness of the proximal muscles of the legs and is usually observed in myopathy, rarely with lesions of the neuromuscular synapse or spinal amyotrophy.
Because of the weakness of the hip flexors leg lifts on the floor due to the inclination of the body, the rotation of the pelvis facilitates the movement of the legs forward. The weakness of the proximal muscles of the legs is usually bilateral, therefore the patient walks in the shuffle.
When parkinsonian (akinetic-rigid) walk patient bent, feet of his Crouch, his arms bent at the elbows, and pinned to the body, often visible pronation tremor rest (with the frequency of 4-6 Hz). Walking begins to tilt forward. Then follow the trotting, shuffling steps - the speed of their steadily growing, as the body "overtakes" the legs. This is observed in the movement as a forward (propulsion), and back (retropulsion). Losing his balance, a patient may fall (see. "Ekstrapiramidnye disorders").
Aprectic gait is observed in bilateral lesion of the frontal lobe of the violation of the capacity for the planning and execution of the sequence of actions.
Aprectic gait reminds parkinsonian - the same "the attitude of the applicant" and trotting steps, however, the detailed study revealed significant differences. Sick easily perform separate movements necessary for a walk, - as lying, and standing. But when he offered to go for a long time he could not move. Making the same, finally, a few steps, the patient stops. After a few seconds an attempt to keep repeating itself.
Aprectic gait is often combined with dementia.
When choreoathetosis walk rhythm walk violate the sudden, violent movements. Due to the chaotic movements in the hip joint gait looks like "disorderly".
When cerebellar walk patient widely puts his feet, speed and length of the steps are changing all the time.
With the defeat of the medial area of the cerebellum are "drunk" gait, ataxia feet. The patient keeps a balance as with open, and with his eyes closed, but loses it when you change the posture. The gait may be quick, but she spasmodic. Often when walking the patient is uncertain, but it passes, if it even a little support.
With the defeat of the hemispheres of cerebellar gait disturbances, combined with locomotor Friedreich's and nystagmus.
Walk with sensory ataxia reminds cerebellar gait - widely spaced legs, loss of balance in a changing postures.
The difference is that with the eyes closed patient immediately loses balance and, if it does not support, may fall (instability in posture Romberga).
The gait of the vestibular ataxia. The vestibular ataxia sick all the time collapses on one side, regardless of whether it is worth it or goes. There is an explicit asymmetric nystagmus. Force of muscles and proprioceptive sensitivity of normal - in contrast to the one-sided sensory ataxia and hemiparesis.
Walk with hysteria. Astasia - abasia typical gait impairment in hysteria. The patient secured a concerted movement of feet - as lying down and sitting down, but he can't stand up and move without assistance. If the patient distract, he holds the balance and makes some normal steps, but then defiantly falls in the hands of the doctor or on the bed.
Which doctor should I contact if there is a violation of the gait
Are you experiencing violation of the gait? You want to know more detailed information, or you need an inspection? Please sign up on reception to the doctor! Doctors will examine you, examine the external signs and help to determine the disease the symptoms, they will consult you and provide the necessary assistance. You can also call the doctor on the house.
Do you feel disrupted gait? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.
Disorders by category
Disorders by alphabet
Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.