Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - violation of the growth

Normal growth. In children, growth is changing rapidly in a relatively short period of time, and the doctor needs to know the normal standards of the growth and development of the child, depending on his age Nature of these dynamic changes can serve as an objective indicator of the General state of health: small changes in this condition may manifest themselves first of all deviation from the normal speed of growth; and on the contrary, the rapidly growing child rarely suffer any serious systemic disease. Thus, growth and the rate of carry important information.

Numerous studies testify to the existence of the difference in growth between different ethnic groups. However, a healthy, well-nourished children are in General the same. One of the interesting regularities lies in the fact that the child was born with growth of about 50 cm, for the first year of life grows by about 25 cm for the second year - on 12,5 cm, and then before puberty its growth increased by 6.2 cm per year. This formula can be used to calculate the average normal growth up to about 10 years of age. A more accurate representation of average height and normal borders of its deviation from the average yield different graphs.

Regulation of growth:

Growth implies an increase in the total number of cells in the body, and the synthesis of macromolecules of individual cells. The relative importance of these different processes for different bodies and depends on the age. Regulation and integration of the processes of growth in different tissues also vary and depend on the stage of development. Knowledge of the mechanisms of regulation of growth it is important to understand the reasons for the change in his character, as well as aging and oncogenesis.

1. Genetic factors. Growth is polygenic sign. Therefore, there are no simple methods of a prediction of the final growth of each individual child on the basis of genetic factors. On average, however, between the growth of the parents and the future growth of their children have a correlation.

2. Power. The next important factor influencing the final growth, the power of the Severe malnutrition, for example, in children with marasmus or strong impact on growth. The lack of certain vitamins and mineral substances (for example, vitamin D may also be the reason of the sharp growth disturbances. In some cases, even subclinical deficiency of certain food substances can cause delayed growth. The tendency to increase in the final growth in a number of countries, manifested in the last century, can be associated with the improvement of power, especially with the increase in consumption of protein in the period of growth.

3. The hormones.

- Growth hormone. Growth hormone (GH, or somatotropin) plays a Central role in the modulation of growth of children from birth until completion of the sexual maturity. In the absence of GR growth rate is twice or even three times below the normal. GR also played an important role in the regulation of the anabolic processes in the body throughout life.

G belongs to the family of hormones, which also comprises hypophysial prolactin and placental lactogen man (PLC).

The secretion of GR is under dual hypothalamic control - the positive and the negative. Somatotropin-releasing inhibitory factor (somatostatin) - peptide consisting of 14 amino acids, is widely distributed and outside the hypothalamus; it is a powerful inhibitor of secretion and other hormones, including insulin, glukagona and gastrin.

The biological activity of G-releasing-hormone (GnRH, somatocrinin) is concentrated in the first 29 of the 44 amino acid residues of the peptide, and N-terminal amino acid belongs in this respect, the most important role. In patients with idiopathic failure GR may be a shortage of GR and not impaired the ability of the pituitary gland to produce GR. Indeed, more than 50% of patients with the lack of GR react to a prolonged surge introduction of the increase in the level of GR in the plasma of blood and an acceleration of growth.

On the secretion of somatostatin and GnRH and, consequently, on the secretion of G, is influenced by many factors. Higher centers of the Central nervous system have the synaptic connection with the cells of the hypothalamus,     secreting somatocrinin and GnRH, and affect these cells both positive and negative influence. In addition, the secretion, or the effect of GnRH and somatostatin affected by the GR and under his control somatomedin peptides. G secreted occasionally and has a relatively short (10-15 min), the period of half-life in plasma. In the period of wakefulness is secreted by only a small number of GRAMS; the secretion of the principal amount of the hormone occurs during sleep, especially on the III-IV stage.

Somatomedins. Although G may also have a direct impact on growth, the majority of its stimulating effects mediated through other peptides - somatomedin (CM) or insulin-like growth factors (IGF). Two IGF present in human blood plasma, - IGF-I and IGF-II, exhibit almost 50% homology with the structure of human insulin and 70% homology with each other. Somatomedin WITH (SEE -) and IGF-I are structurally and functionally indistinguishable. Peptides group IGF/CM strongly linked with specific plasma proteins, and the period of their half-life is not measured in minutes and hours. The level of IGF-I / CM-WITH depends on the secretion of GR and, consequently, increases in acromegaly, and decreased with gipopithuitarizme. In addition, its level in the rate depends on the age, is quite low in early childhood, he reaches a peak in adolescence and decreases after the age of 50. The content of IGF-II in the plasma also depends on the presence of small quantities of GR, but the growth of the latter to the pathological level is not accompanied by a further increase in the content of IGF-II. Thus, the levels of IGF-II low with gipopithuitarizme, but do not exceed the norm at acromegaly. Starting with the one-year-old and up to 8 years of age contents of IGF-II in the plasma remains constant.

Thyroid hormones. In contrast to the changes in growth, observed with the failure of GR, the complete lack of thyroid hormones is accompanied by a practical stop linear growth. Thus, an adequate number of thyroid hormones, apparently, absolutely necessary for normal growth. There are several possible explanations of this phenomenon. Thyroid hormones directly affect the metabolism of the cells; in addition, the lack of thyroid hormones reduces the secretory response GR at the stimulation. Finally, of thyroid hormones can influence and effect of IGF-I/SEE-WITH the cartilage cells.

Sex steroids. The main stimulating effect androgenov and estrogen is manifested in the period of puberty. The rapid growth in puberty was primarily driven by these hormones. Androgens have an immediate stimulating effect on the growth and maturation of bone, cartilage and muscle tissue. Estrogens also have, apparently, of a two-pronged effect: in low concentrations they stimulate growth, and high - slow down.

Insulin. Insulin has a powerful anabolic effect regardless of its impact on carbohydrate exchange. First of all it is the stimulation of protein synthesis and cell division. A considerable length of the bodies of some of the babies born to diabetic mothers, can be a consequence of a high level of insulin in the blood plasma of the fetus. Close structural similarity between insulin and growth factors group IGF/CM, as well as the ability of insulin to interact with the receptor IGF-I/CM-explains some of the effects of high concentrations of insulin. However, the insulin in low concentrations may possess and own stimulating the growth of the influence on cells of some types. Role of insulin in the regulation of normal growth remains unclear.

The other factors. Nerve growth factor, structurally close family of peptides insulin-IGF-I/CM-s, takes part in the development of sympathetic neurons, and also, probably, in the maintenance and restoration of the integrity of other neurons. Epidermal growth factor has a powerful influence on the maturing of epidermal tissue, but affects the cells of other types. Platelet growth factor stands out from the platelets in the formation of a blood clot, and also has a powerful mitogenic effect on many emerging in the culture of cells. The contents of growth factors in the plasma, mechanisms of their regulation, and interaction with other stimulating growth hormones, and their physiological role - all this still requires clarification.

Which diseases there is violation of the growth

Violation of the growth

The potential of growth of a child is determined by its genetic makeups, inherited from the parents. In children of low growth of the parents, too tall, the children of the high growth of the parents is often as high growth. Diagram of growth of the child from birth will be determined genetically, however, for it can influence the state of the environment, violation of the functioning of the bodies and hormonal disorders.

The achievement of the genetic potential of growth depends on many factors, including the speed and duration of the growth of the child, receiving food and caloric intake and metabolism (the sum of all the complex of physical processes in matter and energy, inside living cells). The growth of the child is also influenced by hormones, such as those that are produced by the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands and the sex glands (ovaries and testes). (Hormones are the biologically active substances, worked out by one body and transported by the blood to another organ, where they and manifests himself.)

If a child can't achieve the potential of their growth or exceeds it, then we can say that there is a violation of the growth. In children, the most abundant growth (which is a result of reduced growth rates) below the norm than the highest growth (which is the result of the high growth rate) or a growth exceeding the genetic potential of the child. Growth disorders, which are the cause of skeletal anomalies of the child (usually accompanied by other structural malformations), usually is impossible to correct; other problems, caused by disorders, which violate the normal growth of bones, are solvable, if the breach was discovered in time and treatment initiated immediately.

Low growth.

If fetal growth was delayed, the baby may be born with congenital stunting. The delay in the growth of the fetus can be caused by several factors, including intake of the mother of alcohol or nicotine, radiation exposure or wrong treatment long period of illness of the mother, such as diabetes or kidney failure. Infants with a delay of growth during the mother's pregnancy may have low birth weight. Then they can catch up with normal growth and realize their genetic features.

Short stature, caused by the decrease in the rate of growth in childhood may be associated with long-term illness, with emotional disorders and eating disorders, as well as with hormonal problems. The degree of stunting is determined by the severity and duration of hidden problems. For example, severe malnutrition, combined with cardiac insufficiency, renal and gastro-intestinal disorders, prolonged anemia (such as anemia sickle cell or thalassemia) or renal insufficiency may lead to a slowdown of the growth of the skeleton and to stunting. In children suffering from these disorders, there is a tendency to under-weight, which also affect the growth process.

The cause of short stature may also be chromosomal or genetic disorders. Chromosomes and genes are the elements that define the physical characteristics of the child. Children suffering from disabilities, often grow up with normal for them speed, but their growth is much lower than the growth of healthy children. When they become adults, they are called little people. Before these little people called dwarfs. Some chromosomal abnormalities are accompanied by delayed mental and sexual development. Such violations include down syndrome - the well-known violation, which is the reason for the delay of mental development and conservation of the infantile characteristics and growth, Prader-Willi syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a marked obesity, delayed mental development, sexual immaturity and stunting, Turner Syndrome - chromosome violation observed in women is associated with stunting and anomalous development of the ovaries. Suffering from this disease for female sexual development during puberty need hormone therapy.

The cause of short stature may be endocrine disorders. These violations include hypothyroidism is insufficient secretion of hormones the thyroid gland, and apituitarism - insufficient secretion of hormones of the pituitary gland. In adults, short stature may be the result of early sexual maturation (premature puberty) and lead to the development of sexual hormones in too early an age and premature termination of growth of the skeleton. As a result of such people's growth is high enough for children and too low for adults.

Delayed sexual maturation, which is more common in boys than in girls, can lead to a significant slowdown in the growth of bones and even to stunting. The cause of the slowing down of growth of the child as may be long-term use of certain medicines, such as cortisol. As soon as the child stops accepting such medicinal products, the rate of growth is restored quickly, but it is possible that the child will never make up lost and does not reach the normal adult height.

High growth.

In most cases, high growth is not the result of illness of a child, but reflects its genetic capability. Such cases are called family high growth; usually this applies to at least one of the members of the family. In such cases, the high growth does not require treatment, but parents and children can request the appointment of a hormonal therapy, aimed at accelerating the maturation and reduction in growth during puberty.

High growth, which is the result of the high rate of growth in childhood may be caused by increased secretion of hormones of the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands and the sex glands. However, the growth of the child in the adult age exceeds its genetic potential for growth, if it has a tumor of the pituitary gland, which will cause excessive production of growth hormone, which can lead to a condition called gigantism. The reasons for the accelerated growth in childhood are also causes of accelerated puberty, which leads to a decrease in growth below the genetic potential. If children with a tumor of the pituitary gland that can produce growth hormone, do not receive treatment or treatment is unsuccessful, it may result in a delay of sexual development. It is possible that such people will grow after 30 years, as the actively growing part of their bones are not closed. Excessively high growth adults usually is accompanied by the increase of jaw-bones of the face, palms of hands and soles of the feet (signs of the condition, called acromegaly.

With high growth in childhood may also involve such violations, as obesity and Marfan syndrome. Growth of the bones of obesity child often for 1-2 years ahead of the growth of bone of his peers. Children with Marfan syndrome (hereditary disease of the connective tissues) - tall and thin; their limbs, hands and fingers are usually longer than normal. These children often develop muscle diseases and scoliosis (curvature of the spine to the right or left side), as well as the accompanying illness.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a violation of the growth

  • Endocrinologist
  • Geneticist

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Do you feel disrupted growth? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

Disorders by category

Disorders by alphabet

Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.