Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - violation of oral speech

Violations of oral speech may be divided into two types:
1) phonational (external) registration statements, which are called violations of articulatory the part of speech
2) structural-and-semantic (internal) registration statements, which in occupational called system or polymorphic speech disorders.

I. Disorders phonational registration statements may be differentiated depending on the broken link:
a) phonation,
b) rhythmic tempo statements of the organization,
in intonation)-melodic,
d) phonation organization.

These disorders can be observed in isolation and in various combinations, depending on what the logopaedics, there are the following types of violations, for designation of which there are traditionally established terms:

1. Dysphonia (aphonia) - lack of or frustration of phonation due to pathological changes in the vocal apparatus. Synonyms: violation of the voting, violation of phonation phonotory violations, vocal disorders.
Manifest or in the absence of phonation (aphonia), or in violation of force, pitch and voice timbre (dysphonia), may be caused by organic or functional disorders voice-forming mechanism of the Central or peripheral localization and occur at any stage of the development of the child. Is isolated or part of a number of other violations of the speech.

2. Bradyarthria - pathologically slow pace of speech.
Synonym: bradyphrasia.
Is evident in the slow implementation of the articulatory speech program, is the Central conditioned, can be organic or functional.

3. Tachylogia - pathologically accelerated pace of speech
Synonym: oxylalia.
Is manifested in the accelerated implementation of articulatory speech program, is the Central conditional, organic or functional.
In slow motion it is stretched thick, dull, monotonous. With the accelerated pace - hasty, rash, assertive. The acceleration of speech may be accompanied by agrammatism. These phenomena are sometimes singled out as a separate violation, expressed in terms of battarism, pseudoagrammatism. In cases, when pathologically fast speech is accompanied by groundless pauses, gropingly, trips, it is denoted by the term poltern. Bradyarthria and tachylalia are combined under the common name is a violation of the tempo of speech. The result of the broken tempo of speech is a violation of smoothness of the speech process, rhythm and melodic intonation expressiveness.

4. Stammering is a violation of tempo-rhythmic organization of speech, due to sudorojnam state of muscles speech. Is the Central result is organic or functional nature, occurs most commonly in the course of the speech development of the child.

5. Dyslalia - violation of pronunciation with normal hearing and safe innervation of speech. Synonyms: twist of the tongue (obsolete), defects pronunciation, phonetic defects, deficiencies pronunciation of phonemes.
Manifests itself in the wrong sound (phonemic) design of speech: in a distorted (free from points) pronouncing of sounds, in substitution (substitution) sounds or their mixture. The defect may be due to the fact that the child had not been fully formed articulatory base (not learned the whole set of articulation positions required for pronouncing of sounds) or incorrectly formed articulatory position, due to which they are produced by abnormal sounds. A special group of offences related to anatomical defects articulatory of the machine. In psycholinguistic aspect of violations of pronunciation are considered either as a consequence of its underdevelopment it can operations of differentiation and recognition of phonemes (vision defects), or as inconsistency of operations for the selection and implementation (defects of production), or a violation of conditions of realization of sounds.
When anatomical defects violations are organic in nature, and in their absence - functional.
Violation occurs usually in the process of development of the child; in cases of traumatic injuries of the peripheral device - at any age.
Described defects are selective, and each of them has the status of an independent violation. However, there are also those in which are involved at the same time a few links of a complex mechanism of phonational registration statements. The latter include nasonnement and dysarthria.

6. Nasonnement - violations of the tone of voice and pronunciation, due to anatomic-physiological defects of speech.
Synonyms: nasalized speech (obsolete), palatolalia.
Is manifested in pathological changes the tone of voice,
which turns out to be excessively nasalized due to the fact that voice respiratory jet passes in the utterance of all speech sounds into the cavity of the nose and it receives a response. In the course of rhinolalia there is a distorted the utterance of all speech sounds (and not the individual, as in dyslalia). The defect often meet and prosodic disorders, speech in the course of rhinolalia little picky (unintelligible), monotonous. In the Patriotic speech therapists in the course of rhinolalia adopted to defects caused by congenital cleft palate, i.e. gross anatomic abnormalities articulatory of the machine. In a number of foreign works, such violations are indicated by the term «palatolalia» (from lat. - sky). All the remaining cases nasalized pronunciation of sounds, due to functional or organic disorders of different localization, in these works is called nasonnement. In the domestic phenomenon nasalized pronunciation without rough articulatory violations referred to nasonnement.
Until recently nasonnement defined as one of the forms of mechanical dyslalia. Given the nature of the violation, it is necessary to nasonnement singled out into an independent
speech violation.

7. Dysarthria is a violation of articulatory the part of speech, due to the insufficiency of innervation of speech.
There are inconsistency of all the links of the complex mechanism of phonational registration statements, the result of which are voice, prosodic and articulatory-phonetic defects. Severe degree of dysarthria is anarthria, manifested in the inability to implement the sound implementation of the speech. In mild cases dysarthria, when the defect is mainly manifested in articulatory-phonetic violations, talk about it erased format of These cases should be distinguished from dyslalia.

Dysarthria is a consequence of organic disorders of the Central character, resulting in a motor disorders. On the localization of lesions of the Central nervous system there are different forms of dysarthria. On the gravity of the breach defining the degree of manifestation of dysarthria.
Most often dysarthria arises from the early acquired cerebral palsy, but can occur at any stage of the development of the child as a consequence of neuroinfections other brain diseases.

II. Violations of the structural-and-semantic (internal) registration statements represented by two species: alalia and afaziey.
Alalia - the absence or underdevelopment of speech due to organic lesion of speech areas of the cerebral cortex fetal or early period of the development of the child.
Synonyms: dysphasia, early childhood aphasia, aphasia development, auditory muteness (obsolete).
One of the most complex defects of speech, in which violated the operation of selection and programming at all stages of generation and reception of voice statements, due to which it turns out, was not formed speech activity of the child. The system of linguistic means (phonemic, grammatical, lexical) is not formed, suffers motivation and the level of speech generation. There are rough semantic defects. Violated by the management of speech movements, which is reflected on the reproduction of sound and nibble composition of words. There are several options alalia depending on what kind of voice mechanisms have not been formed and any of their stages (levels) of the pre - property suffers.

2. Aphasia - full or private loss of speech, induced local lesions in the brain.
Synonyms: disintegration, loss of speech.
The child is lost it as a result of traumatic brain injuries, neuroinfections, or tumors of the brain after it was formed. If such a breach occurred in the age of up to three years, the researchers refrain from diagnosis of aphasia. If a violation has occurred at an older age, then talk about aphasia. In contrast to the aphasia adult there is a children's, or early aphasia.



Which diseases there is violation of oral speech

The most common shortcomings of speech in children of primary school age are various kinds of violations of pronunciation:
- the inability to pronounce one or another sound;
- replacement of one sound to others;
- distortion of the existing sound.

To organic reasons were attributed underdevelopment and brain damage in utero, at the time of delivery or after birth, as well as various organic disorders of the peripheral organs of speech. They were allocated organic, Central lesions of the brain and organic peripheral reasons (the defeat of the organ of hearing, splitting the sky and other morphological changes articulatory of the machine).

Mechanical dyslalia may depend on the violations of the bone and muscular structure of the peripheral speech. These violations can be congenital or acquired. Congenital defects of speech:
- nonunion of the upper lip, jaw, soft and hard palate;
- massive and short sublingual bridles;
- change the shape and the relative value of the jaw.
- pathological location and shape of the teeth of the upper and lower jaws.

Acquired defects of speech are due to the fragmentation of bone and muscle rupture (with subsequent hems), as a result of maxillofacial injuries. These violations can occur at any age.


Should take into account that the last 3 defect are often only the predisposing point to the emergence of defects pronunciation, as the physically and mentally healthy child with the right vocal education in the majority of cases are natural ways of compensation of such defect.

Functional reasons M.E. Hvatsev explains the teachings of I.P.. Pavlov about the violations of correlation of processes of excitation and braking in the Central nervous system. He emphasized the close interaction between the organic and functional, Central and peripheral reasons.

Under the socio-psychological reasons he understood the various adverse effects of the environment.

The combined reasons, they were considered mental retardation, impaired memory, attention, and other disorders of mental functions.

Achievements of the recent years in the field of biological, medical and other Sciences about the person allowed to more fully demonstrate the value of an exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal) reasons in the case of voice disorders. Emphasis was placed on the need for an integrated, systemic approach in the diagnosis of speech disorders. It is important not only provide organic (Central and peripheral) and functional reasons speech disorders, but also to provide mechanisms of speech disorders arising under the influence of those or other adverse effects on the organism of the child, which is necessary for the elaboration of the strategy and tactics of the correction of speech disorders, as well as for the forecast of their prevention.



Which doctor should I contact if there is a violation of oral speech

  • Pediatrician
  • Speech therapist
  • Psychologist
  • Teacher


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Disorders by category

Disorders by alphabet


Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.