Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - violation of phonemic hearing

Phonemic hearing - the human capacity for analysis and synthesis of speech sounds, i.e. hearing, providing the perception of the phonemes of a language.

Phoneme (Greek “sound”) is the minimum unit of the sound system of the language; phonemes are used to build and discernment significant language units: morphemes, words, sentences.

Verbal and nonverbal hearing represent two independent forms of work of the hearing system. Nonverbal hearing, the ability to orientate themselves in a non-spoken sounds, i.e. in musical tones and noise. Speech hearing, the ability to hear and analyze the sounds of speech (native or any other language). In the speech heard allocate phonemic hearing, i.e. the ability to distinguish between phonemes, or distinctive sounds of the language, which is based sound analysis of some of speech sounds, syllables and words.

Each language (Russian, English, German, etc.) is characterized by its set of phonemic signs that create a sound structure of the language. Phoneme indicated by the aggregate sound distinctive sign language, a combination of certain signs of speech sounds, which allow to distinguish between the words of a language, distinctive unit of the sound system of the language. Every language has some sound signs are as distinctive, and others as irrelevant for this language.

Violation of phonemic hearing in children.
In case, if the child has not yet formed the acoustic images of individual sounds, phonemes not differ in its sound, which leads to the replacement of sounds. Articulatory base is not complete, because not all necessary for speech sounds have been formed.

In other cases, the child are formed all the articulations * position, but there is no ability to differentiate between some of the positions, i.e. the right to choose sounds. Due to this phonemes are mixed, the same word takes a different sound appearance. This phenomenon is called the mixing or substitutions of sounds (phonemes).

Replacement and mixing sounds qualify as phonological (ED. Rau), or what is the same, phonemic (R.E.. Levin) defects, in which the broken system of the language. In violation of speech hearing the child has touch dyslalia (violation of pronunciation).

Depending on what is defect - phonemic or phonetic, - allocate 3 main forms of dyslalia: acoustic-phonemic, articulatory-phonemic, articulatory-phonetic. To acoustic-phonemic dyslalia are defects of the sound effects, speech, due to the election the lack of a processing operations phonemes on their acoustic parameters in the sensor element of the mechanism of speech perception. These include: the operation of identification, recognition, measurement of acoustic signs of sounds and the adoption of a decision on the phoneme.
In the basis of the violation is insufficient formation phonemic hearing, the purpose of which is the recognition of and discrimination are included in the words of phonemes. The violation of the system of phonemes is the child is not fully formed (reduced) by its composition. The child does not recognise one or the other acoustic sign of a complex sound, in which one phoneme is opposed to the other. Therefore, when the perception of speech is the likeness of the one phoneme other on the basis of the community of the most of the features. In connection with the unidentified one or another of the sign of the sound is recognized properly. This leads to correctly play back the words . These shortcomings hinder correctly perceive it as the person who is speaking, and listening.

Undifferentiated, leading to identification, assimilation, observed in the dyslalia mainly in respect of the phonemes of the one-dimensional acoustic differences. For example, in respect of the noisy phonemes, which differ on the basis of voicelessness-sonority, some sonorants phonemes (R-l) and some others. In those cases, when one or another acoustic sign is the differential for the group of sounds, for example, voicelessness-sonority, defective is the perception of the whole group. For example, a loud, noisy, which are perceived and reproduced as paired them deaf (g-h, h-t, g-K, h-C, etc.). In some cases violated turns out to be opposition in the group of explosive or sonorants consonants.

The acoustic-phonemic dyslalia a child is not of hearing. The defect is that he has selectively is not formed by the reaction of the hearing of discernment some phonemes.

Violation of phonemic hearing loss in adults.
In adults there is a violation of phonemic hearing at the local lesions of the brain.

Touch (temporal) aphasia, or voice agnosia (i.e. misunderstanding of speech), for the first time is described in 1874. A.Y.Kojhevnic and in the same year, clarifying the German neurologist and psychiatrist Wernicke's, which linked it with a hotbed of defeat in the back of the left temporal gyrus, which corresponds to the 21-St and 22-th of cortical fields, i.e. the region of the auditory analyzer. More precisely, here are speech hearing analyzer. And although the analysis of the sound of speech is associated with a hearing analyzer, however, we must remember that in the case of sensory aphasia enormous role played by the rupture of relations between the auditory analyzer and the bark of, damage to a complex functional-dynamic system. Clinical observations suggest that, in milder cases the patient understands the individual words and even short sentences, especially relevant to the daily the usual items, but may be a disorder of phonemic hearing. In severe cases, the patient does not understand human speech, word for it loses its meaning and is perceived as a combination of an unclear noise.

In violation of phonemic hearing due to the destruction of the nuclear zone acoustic analyzer (41, 42 and 22 of the e-field) of the left hemisphere arises rough speech disorder, manifested not only in the inability to distinguish between the sounds of spoken language (i.e., to understand the speech of the ear), but also in violation of all other forms of speech activity.

41-e primary and 42-e and 22nd secondary field of the acoustic analyzer on the classification of AR. Luria are included in the zone T1 - zone, the impact of which there is sensory aphasia. The basis for allocation of the area served as the analysis of 800 cases of traumatic aphasia (A.R. Luria).

Phonemic language code consists of a number of phonemic contrasts, in each of which there is significant phonemic sign, a change which alters the meaning of the perceived words. In the process of decoding the phonemic structure of the language decisive role is played by the system of the temporal areas of the left hemisphere, which are Central to the “cerebral core” audioverbal of the analyzer. The defeat of audioverbal departments of the cortex (the posterior third of the first temporal gyrus of the left hemisphere) is not reflected in the hearing, but breaking the system of audioverbal hearing. Patients with such lesions continue to well distinguish between the different stresses sound (the sound of tableware, musical motives, the noise of rain, etc.), but they are not in a position to allocate phonemic signs of the native language, which are the carriers of the meaning of words. The force that causes confusion close, and sometimes distant phonemes, the inability to determine the essential features of the language sounds, and together with it and inability to retain a clear phonemic the structure of perceived speech, which is a sign of “sensory aphasia”.

The Central link of this form of aphasia is a phenomenon many times described under the name of “alienation of the meaning of words”.

Clearly perceiving the sounds of speech, such patients are mixed the words that are close on sounding. So, perceiving the word “voice”, they can not solve, it means “voice” or “Kolos”, or “single”, or “canvas”, and it is this diversity of alternatives, a popup with equal probability, and is the essence of the phenomenon of “alienation of the meaning of words”.

At the same time, the patients of this group always retain the task - decode the email they receive: they are actively looking for the meaning of utterances, trying to guess about it, but the violation of phonemic hearing inevitably leads to a gross difficulties in allocation of lexical units of speech.

It is characteristic that, losing the ability to clearly determine the value of individual lexical units, patients with damage to the temporal departments of a bark properly and subtly evaluate intonation-melodic structure of a speech utterance, easily recognized interrogative and affirmative proposals, capturing the tone of doubt or certainty that allows them to understand the overall situation sense addressed to him of speech. This dissociation between the collapse of the decoding lexical components of the speech and sufficient safety of the understanding of its prosodic components characterizes the process of understanding the whole statements in patients with damage to the left temporal region.

Violation of phonemic hearing leads to a disruption of all the speech system. The complete destruction of this area of the crust man has lost the ability to distinguish between phonemes of the native language. Such patients do not understand the request to his speech. In less grave cases, they no longer understand quick or “noisy” speech (for example, when talking at the same time two people), i.e. it in the complicated conditions. Particularly difficult for them perception of words with the opposition phonemes. For example, the sound “y-o-s” and “C-h” they do not distinguish the words “fence-Cathedral-constipation” sound to them as the same. Defect of understanding of oral speech is a Central element in the disease. However, since all forms of speech activity connected among themselves, a violation of one element affects all voice system, again suffer and all other forms of speech activity.
In flagrant cases of such patients, there is no active spontaneous oral speech. A verbal statement is replaced by the “word salad”, when people say some incomprehensible in its composition of a word or a set of sounds. Sometimes patients correctly pronounce only the usual words. As a rule, they replace some sounds other (literal paraphasias), as sensory aphasia breaks up the primary sound composition of the word, i.e. the perception of the elements (sounds), is formed from the word.

In such patients have violated the letter under dictation, because, for them, is unclear the sample, which is subject to writing; they have dramatically difficult repetition heard the words; violated also read, because there is no control over the accuracy of his speech. In other words, due to the violation of phonemic hearing breaks up the voice system. At the same time, at patients with a touch afaziey there are no violations of musical hearing, they have preserved of articulation, they are available any oral posture (for example).

Which diseases there is violation of phonemic hearing

The possible causes of the violation of phonemic hearing:

Causes of the violation of phonemic hearing may be mechanical (organic) and functional.

Mechanical disturbance of phonemic hearing caused by organic defects of speech, its bone and muscle structure. It is: short sublingual bundle; a sedentary big language; too small and narrow language; flabbiness of muscles of the front part of the language; defects in the construction of the jaw:
- protraction;
- anteroclusion;
- open direct bite.
- open side bite.
- abnormal teeth, a malformation of the sky: (Gothic narrow, high;
the low, flat; thick lips with loose-bottom lip or short-stiff upper).

For operational reasons, violations of phonemic hearing include:
- wrong upbringing of children's speech in the family, in which both adults “lisp” with the kid;
- imitation of people with unclear and tongue-tied speech;
- bilingualism in the family; pedagogical neglect;
- underdevelopment of phonemic hearing; for a long suction Breasts, due to that there is a lack of mobility of the bodies articulatory of the machine: the language of the lower jaw; hearing loss.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a violation of phonemic hearing

  • Speech therapist

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