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Symptoms of disease - infringement of function of a thyroid gland

Thyroid (thyroid gland) - a small endocrine organ that lies at the front of the neck just above the sternum. It consists of the right and left lobes, which are connected by a small neck of land. Endocrine - means that the body secretes, i.e produces biologically active substances - hormones, which are not output from our body, and are intended for regulation of the processes within it.

The thyroid gland secretes two important hormone - thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones regulate the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, the function of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, mental and sexual activity.

In turn, the intensity of the production of these hormones is regulated by the thyroid pituitary hormone (TSH) according to the law of feedback. The higher the blood levels of T3 and T4, so less TSH is secreted, and Vice versa - the weaker the works of iron, the higher the level of TSH, which stimulates its function. The amount of the hormone regulator may be decreased or increased in 30 and more times.

If the level of TSH in the blood is normal, then it is virtually eliminate the violation of the thyroid gland. Throughout the human life of normal levels of thyroid hormones is a prerequisite of harmonious functioning of the body. They have an impact on the metabolic processes in the body, growth and differentiation of tissues, stimulates the synthesis of protein, have an impact on sexual development, menstrual function, ovulation.

The thyroid gland and its role in the violations of the functions in infertility, miscarriage:
- Hypo - and hyperthyroidism leads to anovulation, the disruption of the menstrual cycle, sterility. Upon the occurrence of pregnancy on a background of hypothyroidism are possible complications, such as anemia, preeclampsia, premature detachment of the placenta, post-partum bleeding, disorders of the cardiovascular system.
- With thyrotoxicosis in the burden of pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, birth of children with low body weight, congenital abnormalities.

Which diseases there is infringement of function of a thyroid gland

Thyroid disease can be divided into disease in violation of its functions, in which the broken hormonal background, and disease in violation of its structure.

Violation of the functions of the thyroid gland may manifest in the form of irritability (or, on the contrary, depression), increased fatigue, change in weight, intolerance to heat or cold, increase in blood pressure, erratic heartbeat, menstrual cycle disorders and infertility in women.

The disease with a violation of the thyroid gland occur with increased or decreased production of hormones (T3, T4, TSH).

The symptoms of excessive functions (hyperthyroidism) can include the following: acute nervousness, irritability, tremors of the hands or throughout the body, reduces the weight on the background of a good appetite, sweating, heat intolerance, General weakness, elevated blood pressure, rapid heart rate, irregular heart beat on the type of cardiac arrhythmia, diarrhea, flushing of the face, insomnia. Sometimes to the data of the symptoms joins the defeat of the eye: the feeling of «sand» in the eyes, duplication, increase and protrusion of the eyes - exophthalmos (exophthalmia).

Increasing function at a young age is associated, as a rule, with graves ' disease (diffuse-toxic goiter); in old age - with the autonomy of the thyroid gland.

Graves ' disease is a disease in which for some unknown reason, the body produces antibodies against thyroid gland. The autonomy of iron (or just part of it) goes out of control and running out of control, are often too actively.

Signs of reduced function (hypothyroidism) the following: weakness, drowsiness, coldness, increased body weight, obesity, swelling, violation of concentration and mental functions, increase cholesterol, weak, slow heart rate, pale, moist skin, constipation, and impotence.

Downgrading of the thyroid gland is most often a consequence of autoimmune thyroiditis. Specific antibodies (different from antibodies in graves ' disease) in consequence of the different reasons are produced by the organism, penetrate into the tissue of the gland, violates its work, cause her to chronic inflammation and - as a result - reduction of functions.

Diseases of the structure of the thyroid gland are in practice far more often than the disease in violation of its functions. This increase in cancer, the formation of a node or cysts (cavities filled with liquid). The most accurate method of diagnostics of structural changes is an ultrasound examination of thyroid gland. Definition of the size of the gland to the touch or the eye - not always reflect the real picture. If during the examination it turns out, that the volume of the cancer in women over 18 ml, and the man is more than 25 ml, then we talk about diffuse increase in cancer or diffuse goiter. If iron is increased and it contains nodes, then talk about the nodal Struma. Nodes can occur in the not enlarged prostate.

Immediately it should be noted that the nodes nodes strife. This means that the reasons for the formation of nodes, the nature of their cellular structure, as well as the ability (or lack thereof) secreting thyroid hormones can vary in wide limits depending on each particular situation. It is clear that the aim of the diagnostics is to establish all of these aspects.

First of all we need to understand the nature of the cellular structure of nodes. That is malignant this site or benign. At the present moment is the only method that gives the 90-95% guarantee of the result in this study. The method is called needle aspiration needle biopsy of the thyroid gland nodes. It boils down to the fact that under ultrasound control - unit surgeon fine needle pierces (stipple) node. Then from the lumen of the needle extract tissue content and examined under the microscope. This makes the specialist - histologist (cytologist).

If you installed a malignant nature of the node (cancer), then further treatment is planned to be oncologist. In the vast majority of cases this operation. No other method of cancer treatment does not give the same positive forecast, as surgical treatment.

Unfortunately, microscopically you can only put, but you can't reject the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Only the study of the drug after surgery gives full of light. So the node is always disturbing and difficult situation. The nodes it is necessary to spending periodically (1 once in 6-12 months) the control gland ultrasound examination, an assessment of which must be handled by an experienced doctor-endocrinologist.

In addition, the nodes of the thyroid gland may be as producing the hormones in excessive quantities - and then clinically detected picture of thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism) or not producing hubbub - and then, as a consequence of the defeat of the nodes of a significant part of the thyroid gland may develop hypothyroidism. In most cases, the hub of education does not affect the function of the thyroid hormones (T3, T4 and TSH remain within the norm.

For the synthesis of thyroid hormones the thyroid gland needs iodine. Iodine we get from food. However, often in our food iodine is not enough. In this case, can develop such diseases as Iodine deficiency or endemic goiter is a compensatory increase in the thyroid gland, which develops as a consequence of iodine deficiency in persons living in iodine-deficient regions. With a slight lack of iodine thyroid function is not violated, the more severe forms of possible development of hypothyroidism. Daily requirement of iodine is in average of 150 micrograms per day. When you receive iodine below 100 mg per day is developing a compensatory increase in the thyroid gland. In response to the reduced level of thyroid hormones in the blood is increased secretion of TSH, which is the cause of the beginning of diffuse hyperplasia of the prostate, and then the development of the nodal forms of goiter.

Prevention is very important enlargement of the thyroid gland during pregnancy. Pregnant women should proactively take iodine, because in this period, the additional need for iodine. However, it should not be independently choose the preparations of iodine and dose - an excess of iodine in the organism may have an adverse effect on the fetus. Young people with a tendency to the increasing of the thyroid gland also should take iodine. In old age treatment of iodine should be used with caution, as this may lead to decompensation possible diffuse autonomy of the thyroid gland.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a infringement of function of a thyroid gland

  • Endocrinologist

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Do you feel disrupted function of a thyroid gland? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

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Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.