Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - violation of the endocrine system

Violation of the endocrine system - pathological conditions that occur as a result of improper activity of the endocrine glands or the endocrine glands, which produce produced by them substances (hormones directly into the blood or lymph.

The endocrine glands are the pituitary gland, thyroid and parathyroid gland, adrenal gland and with mixed function, performing along with the internal and external secretion: sexual glands and pancreas. The main role of the endocrine glands in the body is expressed in their impact on the processes of metabolism, growth, physical and sexual development. Violation of the endocrine system leads to the emergence of various violations of the vital functions of the organism. In the basis of endocrine disruption is either excessive growth or decrease of the functions of one or another of the gland.

The pituitary gland is the center of the regulation of the endocrine system, because it produces the hormones, specifically stimulate the growth, differentiation and the functional activity of certain glands of internal secretion. Violation of the complex functions of the pituitary gland shall entail the development of a number of pituitary disturbances: excessive function of the anterior pituitary causes acromegaly (large size of the skull, superciliary arches, cheeks, nose, chin, hands, stop); reduced function of the anterior pituitary may cause obesity, stunted growth, a sharp depletion and atrophy of the sex glands; lowering the functions of the back of the pituitary gland - the development of insipidus diabetes, (plenty of urine, increased thirst).

Increase of the thyroid gland is reflected in the increase of its volume, heartbeat, emaciation, depending on the increase metabolism, diarrhea, sweating, phenomena of high nervous and mental arousal. In drastically pronounced increase of the thyroid gland (the so-called graves ' disease) is the protrusion of the eyeballs - exophthalmia.

Downgrading of the thyroid gland is accompanied by the reduction of the thyroid gland, slowing heart rate, and retraction eyeballs. Appears a tendency to obesity, constipation, dry skin, lowering the total excitability, changing of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, which are like edematous. This condition is called myxedema.

Increasing function parathyroid glands occurs rarely. Considerably more often a function of these glands is reduced.

This reduces the content of calcium in the blood, which leads to increased excitability mainly motor vehicles of the nervous system and tendency to tetanic seizures, developing more often on the upper extremities. Convulsive seizures usually last between a few minutes up to 1-2 hours.
This set of symptoms is the name of the spasmophilia or tetany.

Increase in adrenal function is accompanied by a premature puberty (most often in connection with the formation of a tumor).

Lowering the function of the adrenal cortex in severe cases gives you a picture of Addison disease (bronze disease), while the characteristic dark, bronze pigmentation of the skin, depletion, lowers blood pressure, lowers blood sugar, reduced resistance of the organism.

Increasing function of cerebral layer of the adrenal causes the development of arterial hypertension in the form of attacks.

Improving the function of sexual glands occurs rarely (often in connection with the development of malignant tumors of these glands), for the most part in the children's age. Sexual glands prematurely reaching their full development.

Lowering of the functions of these glands leads to eunuchism - the growth of the disproportionate lengthening of the lower and upper extremities, a tendency to obesity, with the distribution of fat in males according to the feminine type and underdeveloped genital mutilation, the lack of secondary hair.

Improvement of the function of the pancreas is insufficiently studied. Some manifestations - resistant decrease the amount of sugar in the blood, the tendency towards obesity. Lowering the functions of the glands leads to the increase of sugar content in the blood and urine, increased urination, the decline of food (sugar diabetes).

Which diseases there is violation of the endocrine system

The regulation of the activity of the endocrine glands are vegetative nervous centres intermediate the brain through the autonomic-nervous fibers and through the pituitary gland under the control of a bark of the big hemispheres. The nervous and endocrine systems are closely linked and constantly interact.

The glands of internal secretion have a major effect on the growth and development of the organism, the processes of exchange, tone and excitability of the nervous system. Peculiarities of functioning of separate parts of the endocrine system play a big role in the formation of the organism in General and its constitutional peculiarities in particular.

The natural course of age-related changes in the body can quickly be violated under the influence of disorders of internal secretion by one or more of the endocrine glands.

The reasons for violations of the endocrine system:

1. The primary functions of the peripheral endocrine glands.

Various pathological processes may develop in the thyroid and lead to a breach of education and secretion of the respective hormones.

An important place among the reasons for the defeat peripheral endocrine glands occupy infection. Some of them (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis) can localize in different glands, causing them to a gradual erosion, in other cases, there is a certain selectivity destruction (for example, meningococcal septicaemia is often accompanied by bleeding into the adrenal glands, viral vaccine often causes orchitis, and atrophy of the testes, and orchitis may also arise in gonorrhea, etc.).

Frequent cause of damage to the glands and violations of hormone serve as the tumor that may develop in any hardware. The nature of the endocrine disorders at this depends on the nature of the tumor. If the tumor is of the secretory cells, usually producing excessive amounts of hormones and the picture of hyperfunction of the gland. If the tumor is not secretes a hormone, and only compresses and causes atrophy or destroys tissue of the gland, develops its progressive hypothyreosis. Often tumors are metastatic character. In some cases, tumors of the endocrine glands produce hormones, are not characteristic of the gland, it is also possible ectopic education centers hormones in tumors non-endocrine bodies.

Violation of the endocrine system can be caused by congenital defects of development of glands or their atrophy. The latter caused by various reasons: sclerotic process, chronic inflammation, age involution, hormone-active tumor steam cancer, long term treatment of exogenous hormones, etc. In the basis of the damage and the atrophy of cancer sometimes lie autoimmune processes (for example, in some forms of diabetes mellitus, diseases of the adrenal glands, thyroid, etc.).

Autoimmune processes can cause overproduction of hormones (for example, thyroid gland).

Hormones education is violated in connection with hereditary defects of enzymes necessary for their synthesis, or the inactivation (blockade) of these enzymes. Thus arise, for example, some forms of kortiko-genital syndrome, endemic cretinism and other endocrine diseases. It is also possible education in iron anomalous forms of hormones. These hormones have deficient activity or fully deprived of her. In some cases there are inside-glandular transformation prohormone in hormone, in connection with than in the blood are allocated inactive forms of it.

The cause of the biosynthesis of hormones may be a shortage of specific substrates, entering into their structure (for example, iodine, necessary for the formation of thyroid hormones).

One of the reasons of endocrine disorders is the depletion of the biosynthesis of hormones in the result of long-term stimulation of the glands and its hyperfunction. In this way there are some forms of the deficiency of beta-cells of the island Deposit apparatus pancreas, stimulated by the long hyperglycaemia.

2. Iron out (peripheral) forms of endocrine disorders.

Even when it is the normal function of the peripheral glands and adequate to the needs of the organism in the secretion of hormones may cause various endocrinopathy.

The reasons for such iron out «peripheral» endocrine disorders may be a violation of the binding of hormones with a protein on the stage of their transport to the target cells, inactivation or destruction of circulating hormone, violations of the reception of the hormones and their metabolism, violations of permissive mechanisms.

Inactivation of circulating hormones, according to modern concepts, are often connected with the formation of antibodies to them. Such an opportunity is installed in respect of exogenous hormones: insulin, ACTH, STG.

At the present time proved the possibility of the formation of autoantibodies to their own hormones. Possibility is not excluded, and other ways inactivation of hormones on the stage of their circulation.

Important form of iron out of endocrine disorders caused by violations of the reception of the hormone in the target cells on the surface or inside of the cage. Such phenomena may be the result of a genetically caused by the absence or small number of receptors, defects of their structure, various damage cells, competitive blockade of receptors «antihormones», abrupt shifts in physico-chemical properties of cell and intracellular environment.

Great importance is attached to the present time anti-receptor antibodies. It is considered, that the mechanisms of generation anti-receptor antibodies may be associated with some of the features of the immune system.

Cause the formation of antibodies may be viral infection; suggest that in such cases, the virus is connected with hormone receptor on the cell surface and provokes the formation of anti-receptor antibodies.

One of the forms of the failure of hormonal effects may be related to the violation of permissive «mediation» of action of hormones.

For example, the lack of cortisol, which provides a powerful and versatile permissive action in respect of catecholamines, sharply weakens glycogenolitic, lipolytic the effects of adrenaline, pressor action and some of the other effects of catecholamines.

In the absence of the necessary amount of thyroid hormones can not normally be realized action Somatotropinum hormone in the early stages of development of the organism.

Violation of «mutual aid» hormones can lead to other endocrine disorders.

Endocrinopathy may arise as a result of infringement of metabolism of hormones. A significant part of the hormones destroyed in the liver, and in her liver (hepatitis, cirrhosis, etc.) often there are signs of endocrine disorders. It is possible and excessive activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of hormones.

Thus, the reasons and mechanisms of endocrine disorders is a great variety.

When this is not always the basis of these disorders is insufficient or excessive production of the respective hormones, but always - the inadequacy of their peripheral effects in target cells, leading to the complex intertwining of metabolic, structural and functional disorders.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a violation of the endocrine system

  • Endocrinologist

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Do you feel disrupted endocrine system? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

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Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.