Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - violation of water-salt metabolism

The amount of water in the body and its distribution. The human body mainly consists of water. The relative content of above all the newborn 75% of total body weight. With age, it gradually decreases and is in the period of the completion of the growth of 65%, and elderly people - only 55%.

Contained in the body of water is distributed between several water sectors. In the cells (intracellular space) is 60% of the total; the rest is extracellular water in intercellular space and blood plasma, as well as in the composition of the so-called transcellular fluid (inside the canal, the chambers of the eye, the gastro-intestinal tract, exocrine glands, the kidney tubules and urinary ducts).

Water-salt metabolism. The internal exchange of liquid depends on the balance of its receipt in an organism and separation from him for one and the same time. Usually the daily human need in the liquid does not exceed 2.5 l. This volume consists of water, which is included in the composition of a meal (about 1 liter), drinking (approximately 1.5 l) and oxidative water, generators by oxidation mainly fats (0,3-0,4 l.).
"Waste liquid" return through the kidneys (1.5 l), by evaporation from then (0,6 l) and exhaled air (0.4 l), faeces (0,1). Regulation of water and ion exchange is carried out complex neuroendocrine responses aimed at maintaining the constancy of volume and osmotic pressure of extracellular sector, and first of all of the blood plasma. Both of these parameters are closely interrelated, but
mechanisms of their correction relatively Autonomous.



Which diseases there is violation of water-salt metabolism

All violations of water-salt metabolism (dyskinesia) can be combined in two forms: gipergidratation, characterized by high content of fluid in the body, and hypohydration (or dehydration), consisting in reduction of the total volume of liquid.

Hypohydration. This form of violation arises as a result of, or significant reduction in the flow of water in the organism, or excessive her loss. The extreme degree of dehydration is called exsicosis.

Isoosmolar hypohydration - a relatively rare variant of violations, which is based on the proportional reduction of the volume of fluid and electrolytes, as a rule, in the extracellular sector. Usually this condition occurs immediately after acute blood loss, but there is a long and shall be resolved in connection with the inclusion of compensatory mechanisms.

Hypoosmolar hypohydration - develops due to fluid loss, enriched with electrolytes. Some States, arising in particular pathology of the kidney (increase filtering and reduction of reabsorption fluid), intestinal tract (diarrhea), the pituitary gland (deficit ADG), adrenal gland (decrease in production aldosterone), accompanied by polyuria and hypoosmolar hypohydration.

Hyperosmolar hypohydration - develops as a result of the loss of body fluids, lean electrolytes. It may occur as a result of diarrhoea, vomiting, polyuria, profuse sweating. To hyperosmolar dehydration can cause long gipersalivacia or polypnoea, as resulting in the loss of liquid with a low content of salts. Among the reasons one should especially note the insular
diabetes. In the conditions of hyperinsulinism develops osmotic polyuria.

However, the level of glucose in the blood remains high. It is important that in this case the hydropenias can arise immediately and in the cell, and in acellular sectors.

Hyperhydration. This form of violation occurs due to either excess of water entering the organism, or of insufficient its excretion. In some cases, these two factors operating simultaneously.

Isoosmolar hypohydration - can be played by entering in an organism of the excess of physiological solution, such as sodium chloride. Developing the overhydratation is of a temporary nature and are usually quickly remedied (under condition of normal operation of the system of regulation of water metabolism).

Hypoosmolar gipergidratation is formed at the same time in intracellular and cellular sectors, i.e. belongs to the other forms of dis-guidry. Intracellular hypoosmolar gipergidratation is accompanied by gross violations of ion and acid-base balance, membrane potentials cells. When the water poisoning
there is nausea, repeated vomiting, convulsions possible development of coma.

Hyperosmolar gipergidratation - may arise in the case of the forced use of sea water for drinking. The rapid increase of the level of electrolytes in the extracellular space leads to acute hyperosmia, because cytolemma does not pass the abundance of the ions in the cell. However, it can not hold water, and part of the cell water moves in the interstitial space. As a result of extracellular gipergidratation is growing, although the degree of hyperosmia reduced. At the same time, dehydration tissue. This type of disturbance accompanied by the development of the same symptoms, as and when hyperosmolar dehydration.

Swelling. Typical pathological process, which is characterized by the increase of water content in extravascular space. In the basis of its development is a violation of the exchange of water between the plasma of blood and the Vasa vasorum liquid. Edema - wide common form of exchange of water in the body. There are several main pathogenetic factors of the development of edemas:

1. Hemodynamic. Swelling occurs because of increase the pressure of the blood in the venous section capillaries. This is reduces the reabsorption of fluid while continuing its filtration.

2. Oncotic. Edema develops due to either lowering the oncotic pressure of the blood, or raise it in the interstitial fluid. Hypo-oncotic blood is likely to be conditioned by the decrease of the level of protein, mainly albumin. Hypoproteinemia may arise as a result:
(a) the lack of protein in the organism;
b) violations of the synthesis of albumin;
in) excessive loss of plasma proteins of the blood with the urine in some diseases of the kidneys;

3. The osmotic. Swelling may also occur due to the decrease of the osmotic pressure of the blood or improve it in the interstitial fluid. Fundamentally hyposphresia blood may occur, but quickly formed with severe disturbances of homeostasis "not leave" time for the development of its expressed form.

Hyperospheresia tissue, as well as hyper-oncotic them, often limited. It can occur due to:
(a) violations of the washing away of electrolytes and metabolites of tissues in violation of microcirculation;
b) reduction of active transport of ions across cell membrane for tissue hypoxia; C) massive "leakage" of the ions out of the cell at their seventh;
d) the increase of the degree of dissociation of salts in the acidosis.

5. Membrane gene. Swelling is formed as a consequence of a significant increase of permeability of the vascular wall.



Which doctor should I contact if there is a violation of water-salt metabolism

  • Resuscitator
  • Therapeutist
  • Anesthesiologist


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Do you feel disrupted water-salt metabolism? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

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