Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - breach of the pituitary gland

The pituitary gland is a very complex gland, when his illness or destruction of the suffering of the function of many of the glands of internal secretion.

Iron and hormones

The pituitary gland is at the base of the skull, it consists of two lobes - the front and back, although its size a little more than a pea. It is well protected from external influences, because rests in the bone marrow depression. And this little piece of allocates about a dozen of vital hormones that regulate the activities of all the other endocrine glands. We already got acquainted with the dash-tropic hormone (TSH) and corticotropin (ACTH), their allocates the anterior portion of the pituitary. In addition to them front the share of the highlights of growth hormone (GH), whose purpose is stimulation of growth, prolactin, which stimulates the production of milk, as well as the gonadotropic hormones that stimulate development of ovarian and male sex glands. Rear share of the pituitary gland produces two very similar in structure of hormone: oxytocin and antidiureticeski hormone - arginin-vasopressin. These hormones have a number of functions, such as oxytocin contributes to the reduction of the uterus during childbirth. But the main function of arginin-vasopressin is regulation of water metabolism: in case of various stresses the release of this hormone dramatically increases the reverse absorption of water in the kidneys, keeping the water in the body, maintaining blood volume and blood pressure. Parents are well aware that in case of acute disease, such as pneumonia, a child in fact ceases to urinate, it happens not because of a lack of liquid, and as a result you- of this hormone, therefore the introduction of large amounts of fluid into a vein such patients can be dangerous.

Secretion of pituitary hormones is also under various regulatory influences. It is stimulated by special releasing hormone (hormone, «dispensers» the secretion of pituitary). Releasing hormones are produced by special cells of the brain - the gipotalamicescoy region, closely linked with the pituitary gland. On the other hand, the secretion of pituitary hormones (TSH, ACTH) is suppressed by the type of feedback with the increase in the concentration of hormones, the production of which they promote. The same way they interact with other hormones. So, the effect of growth hormone is suppressed somatostatin, which is produced in the hypothalamus, the pancreas, and in special endocrine cells in a number of other bodies. Production of prolactin inhibiting dopamine is a hormone from the group of adrenaline.
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Which diseases there is breach of the pituitary gland

Diseases associated with violations functions of the pituitary gland

Violations of growth are observed more often as hereditary feature (repetition of the growth patterns of the parents), the genetic defects of bone growth (then slowing of growth is disproportionately, usually with shortening of the bones of the extremities), and also due to malnutrition and heavy common diseases. Here we will focus on the violation of the growth as a result of the defeat of the pituitary.

To identify violations of growth it is important to ROSTO-weight curve of the child on the form of the standard indicators; the growth curve of the child in the norm should go in parallel with the standard curves, regardless of whether they are in the middle, upper or lower area. About the violation of the growth can say, if the growth curve of the child begins to deviate down or up, crossing the standard curves.

Parents it is easy to find and likely the final growth of the child. Because it mainly depends on the hereditary factors, it is easy to calculate the formula:
Growth = (growth father growth + mother): 2 + 6.5 cm for a boy (-6,5 see for girls)
Error of this forecast does not exceed 8.5 cm in one way or another.
When applying to the doctor last usually determines the so-called bone age (on the roentgenogram and special tables).

The acceleration of growth rarely connected with violation of the functions of the pituitary gland. When hypophysial gigantism (usually boys) there is increased production of growth hormone due to tumor cancer. Sometimes gigantism is combined with acromegaly - faster disproportionate increase in some of the facial skull, hands, and feet.

Most often the acceleration of growth observed in the family tall, these children have a normal body proportions, their bone age corresponds to the calendar. With thyrotoxicosis the acceleration of growth is combined with weight loss and other symptoms. High growth is typical for hereditary Marfan syndrome, it is combined with the elongation of the limbs, a narrow chest, long («spidery») fingers and toes. With early sexual development of high growth combined with the acceleration of bone age.

Treatment of gigantism conducts endocrinologist, introducing child antagonist HGH is a synthetic analogue of somatostatin octreotide or bromocriptine. Sometimes parents are requested to slow the growth of girls, especially if the forecast of the final growth exceeds 185 cm. With this purpose it is administered female sex hormone estrogen; the method is effective, if the bone age of the girls were still not reached ten years of age, thus able to reduce its final increase to 10-12 cm.

The growth slowdown is observed more frequently and cause more anxiety of parents. The deceleration of growth under the influence of severe malnutrition or chronic diseases diagnostic difficulty is usually not. In a number of genetic diseases involving violation of bone growth by itself slowing of growth is usually not a major complaint, the parents worried about the change of their form and proportions; these patients used to be called a dwarf, many of them served as court jesters. Until this time, these diseases do not respond to treatment.

From these States should be distinguished family short stature of the child, in which, in spite of the lag in the growth of peers, his bone age corresponds to the calendar year, and the rate of sexual development is normal; the teenager to-up growth, determined according to the formula given above.
Can not disturb parents «of the Constitution of» the form of lag a child's growth. In this form of the parents note a slowing of the pace of growth (often and weight, respectively growth) from the second year of a child's life, when its addition does not reach even half of the normal (only 3-5 cm per year). The growth rate remains low and in the next 1-3 years, but then the growth accelerated to the standards. These children and the bone age and onset of puberty may lose up to 1-3 years, i.e. the period during which was slowed down growth, but the final growth reaches its genetic potential.

Short stature may develop due to the pronounced growth hormone deficiency - this form is called the pituitary nanism, and living with this disease are often called Lilliputians, that their very offended. The reason for this congenital disease most often unclear, in rare cases, it is associated with damage to the pituitary gland tumor. In the congenital form of proportional stunting becomes noticeable already by the age of one year, and in subsequent children added to the growth of very little. Moreover, the functions of the pituitary gland at the same time leads to an underdeveloped genital organs - it is possible to judge the boys on the small (less than 2.8 cm) the size of the penis is already in the first days of life. The disease is often combined with other endocrine disorders, for example with a reduction in blood sugar (hypoglycemia), and also with the human respiratory and bouts of cyanosis.

For the diagnosis of pituitary nanism are conducting a study of the content of growth hormone in the blood, stimulating its allocation of some medicines. The study, by the way, spend and the constitutional shortness - in these patients the level of HGH is not reduced.

For the treatment of children with pituitary nanism naturally enter the growth hormone. The first of his preparations were made from infected pituitary glands of human, but it soon became clear that such treatment contributes to the contamination of the patient prions that cause severe neurological disease, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (of the same or of the same pathogen mad cow disease). This practice was abandoned, and now for the treatment of nanism use of the genetic engineering (recombinant) growth hormone. The treatment, the more effectively at an early age, enables pain-term reach the normal or almost normal growth.

Nesharnyi diabetes - disease, which manifests itself increase the number of urine and as a result of this constant thirst. The term «insipidus» shows that increased urine these patients is not connected with the presence in it of a large amount of glucose, as in diabetes mellitus.

A sick child can allocate up to nineteen liters of urine per day, drinking is not less water. If the urine has a very low weight (1000-1005 instead of the usual 1015-1025). The cause of this disease - damage to the back of the pituitary gland, often tumor or granuloma in the malignant disease, which is called «histiocytosis first class». Sometimes producing antidiureticeski hormone cells of the pituitary gland affected by the antibodies in autoimmune process. The result is a decrease in the production of antidiuretic hormone, in the absence of which the kidney tubules are unable to absorb water, filtered from the blood by the kidney glomes.
Loss of fluid, if it is not replenished, may threaten the patient's life, it is manifested in the first place weight loss, fever, then the rapid development of the collapse.

Fortunately, the complaints of the parents to the increased thirst of the child and frequent urination are observed more often than insipidus, as well as diabetes. The fact is that many parents, in order to reassure the child, give him a bottle of water; gradually increased water consumption leads to an increase in the volume of urine, so that over time the volume of alcohol consumed and dedicated often reaches 2-4 liters per day. Accustomed to this «water regime», the child is experiencing thirst, so that the denial of water is a concern, and crying. Only a gradual reduction of the volume of intake of fluids in these children leads to the normalization of work of the kidneys.

Treatment insipidus diabetes is conducted counterparts of the hormone vasopressin - antidiuretic and others in the individual selection of the dose. Established preparations for the introduction of the oral and subcutaneous, but the most consume sprays and nose drops. When a tumor or histiocytosis carry out the appropriate treatment.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a breach of the pituitary gland

  • Endocrinologist

Are you experiencing breach of the pituitary gland? You want to know more detailed information, or you need an inspection? Please sign up on reception to the doctor! Doctors will examine you, examine the external signs and help to determine the disease the symptoms, they will consult you and provide the necessary assistance. You can also call the doctor on the house.

Do you feel disrupted pituitary gland? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

Disorders by category

Disorders by alphabet

Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.