Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - visual impairment

The most common violations of view.

Nearsightedness (myopia) (denoted by the sign -) : the image of the object focuses depending on the curvature of the cornea by the length of the eyeball. Excessive curvature of the cornea, the elongation of the eyeball, or in the case of these two symptoms of the image does not focus on the retina, and in front of it. Distant objects appear blurred, though near the patient can see the good. People suffering from myopia, need glasses in order to see into the distance. 85% of all people wearing glasses, short-sighted.

Farsightedness (hyperopia) (denoted by a plus sign) : it is a violation of refraction due to lack of curvature of the cornea, the small size of the eyeball or both of these reasons. At sightedness image is not in a specific area of the retina, and is located in a plane for her. Young people suffering from long-sighted a small degree, may not even need the optical correction of sight. However, in the more Mature age, when in the crystalline lens age changes are, the patient will be in need of glasses first to see up close, and then and to see into the distance. If the patient suffers hyperopic a high degree, it will be necessary points and to give, and for a short distance, even at a young age. 15% of all people wearing glasses, hyperopic.

Astigmatism (cylinder) (denoted by an angle): the reason for it is the irregular shape of the cornea, in which its refractive power is different, and the light rays are refracted by a few tricks. As a result, man sees blurry or distorted image. Almost everyone suffers from an astigmatism in one degree or another. The name of the «cylinder» is derived from the lenses of cylindrical form, which correct this disease.

Age-sightedness (presbyopia) (denoted by a plus sign) is a phenomenon that occurs in people older than 40 years. Presbyopia occurs due to the fact that the lens of the eye with time becomes less elastic, and the muscles that hold it, weaken. Suffering from presbyopia can't read, and have to wear glasses for reading.

Amblyopia («lazy eye») is a disease in which the visual acuity of one or both of the eye drops. The primary cause of amblyopia is strabismus or other optical disease, fully or partially covers the optical axis (cataract, the omission of the century). Because of this eye passes into the brain of an unclear picture, as a result of which the brain simply suppresses the work of one eye. If not treated amblyopia, visual acuity is reduced.

- All over the world about 314 million people suffer from visual impairments, 45 million of them struck by blindness.
- Visual impairments often suffer from older people. Everywhere in the world higher risk among women of all ages.
- About 87% of people suffering from disorders of view, live in developing countries.
- The number of people who lost their sight as a result of infectious disease, has significantly decreased, however, the prevalence of visual impairment caused by age, is growing.
- All over the world cataract is the main cause of blindness, except in the most developed countries.
"The correction of refractive anomalies can return to normal sight more than 12 million children (aged 5-15 years).
- Throughout the world, around 85% of cases of violations of the terms of preventable.

Global trends
Since the beginning of 90-ies in global trends evident decrease in the number of violations of view throughout the world, as well as change of reasons. The number of cases of visual impairment and blindness, caused by infectious diseases has decreased significantly (which indicates the success of the international health activities), but a visible increase in the number of people suffering from blindness or vision impairments in connection with rising life expectancy.

Which diseases there is visual impairment

The reasons for violations of view:
According to estimates causes of blindness in the world, defined as visual acuity of 6/60 and below, are: in approximately 17 million. - cataract, with 6 million. - trachoma, at 1 million. - onchocerciasis and in 1 million. - xeroftalmia. These States are described below. The main reason is age-related degeneration of the optic spots, glaucoma, senile cataract, optic nerve atrophy, diabetic retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa.

Degeneration of the optic spots. Age-related degeneration of the optic spots - a small area of the retina, which determines the severity of the Central vision. At the present time, however, employs a laser therapy, allowing to warn practical vision loss in those cases, when the process of degeneration is accompanied by the formation of new blood vessels of the retina.

Glaucoma. It is not excluded, that glaucoma is the cause of approximately one fifth of all cases of blindness in the world. Judging by the available data, one or the other form of this disease suffers 1% of all persons over the age of 40 years. The disease is characterized by a significant increase in intraocular pressure, which is accompanied by a progressive decrease of peripheral vision due to the irreversible damage to the optic nerve. Treatment - medical, surgical or laser is directed at the reduction of intraocular pressure.

Vascular disorders of the retina. Diabetic retinopathy (defeat of the small blood vessels that feed the retina) is the most frequent eye complication of diabetes. In some cases can be, at least in part, to restore the lost sight with the help of surgery, called vitrectomy, at which removes hardened and because non-transparent gel in the center of the eyeball.
Other vascular diseases of the retina: retinopathy of premature babies (retrolental fibroplasia), in which the prematurely born children receiving too much oxygen, in the retina disrupted the development of blood vessels and the growing fibrous tissue; sickle cell retinopathy, characterized by thrombosis retinal vessels and haemorrhages in it, in patients with sickle-cell anemia; venous thromboembolism (blockage) of the veins of the retina, as well as the destruction of blood vessels, associated with arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis.

Cataract is clouding of the lens of the eye, leading to the destruction of view. Many believe cataract inevitable sign of old age, but it can occur at any age, even in utero. All over the world suffer from cataracts about 17 million people, and each year it develops not less than 3 million. The only effective method of treatment is surgical removal of the opaque lens.

Xeroftalmia and keratomalacia. The main cause of xerophthalmia (expressed dryness of the conjunctiva of the lack of secreta slezna fluid) and more serious condition called keratomalacia (degeneration, ulceration and, ultimately, perforation of the cornea), is vitamin A deficiency, almost always accompanies the lack of power. The most severe manifestations of most forms of beriberi And are in the melting of the cornea and perforation of the eyeballs. In developing countries this is one of the most important causes of blindness.

The injury. The world statistics of blindness and vision degradation due to eye injuries is absent, but for individual countries can give some information. In Nigeria, for example, 25% blinded as a result of accidents are schoolchildren. In developing countries with a low level of health even light a scratched cornea often lead to ulceration, infection and ultimately to the loss of the eye. At observance of safety precautions, wearing of protective glasses could have been avoided eye injuries in 90% of cases.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a visual impairment

  • Ophthalmologist

Are you experiencing visual impairment? You want to know more detailed information, or you need an inspection? Please sign up on reception to the doctor! Doctors will examine you, examine the external signs and help to determine the disease the symptoms, they will consult you and provide the necessary assistance. You can also call the doctor on the house.

Do you feel visual disrupted? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

Disorders by category

Disorders by alphabet

Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.