Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - violation of the visual analyzer

The ability to see, i.e. to feel and perceive the reality by means of the visual analyzer is called vision.

The impression of the outside world, the formation of representations about the actually existing objects and phenomena brain receives through the sense of sight.

With the help of view of the known substantial attributes of various objects (light, color, size), is orientation in space, is perceived by a fine and architectural art, there are complex changes in the nature.

Optical perception is the visual analyzer, which is a complex nervous receptor system that implements the perception and analysis of visual stimuli.

The characteristic features of visual perception: distantly, momentariness, simultaneity and the integrity of view of the surrounding world.

Structurally and functionally, this is the most difficult and a perfect body. It interacts with the physical, tactile, olfactory and hearing analyzers; forms with them complex dynamic system of relations.

The visual analyzer consists of a peripheral Department (eyes), conductor (the optic nerve, and subcortical visual changes) and the Central Department (visual zone of the cortex of the brain, located in the occipital region).

Violation of the activities of the visual analyzer causes the child significant difficulties in the knowledge of reality, the limited social contacts, is limited to the opportunity to engage in various activities.

Which diseases there is violation of the visual analyzer

Violations of the visual analyzer can be caused by the force of congenital or acquired influences.

Acquired disorders of the visual analyzer.
- The impact of pathogenic agents in the period of embryonic development (toxoplasmosis, metabolism disorders, inflammatory processes, infectious diseases);
- Disease - smallpox, trachoma, syphilis, and tuberculosis of the eye;
- Children's diseases: measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria;
- Intracranial and vnutriglaznae hemorrhage;
- Head injury (as a result of childbirth, traumatic injury the brain);
- The trauma of the eyes (in the postpartum period);
- Acquired cataract (a consequence of injuries);
Is a severe disease that is associated with an increase in intraocular pressure, and changes in the tissues of - glaucoma (loss of vision);
- Atrophy of the optic nerve - is characterized by the violation of the connection between the retina and the visual centers of the eyes;
- Diseases of the Central nervous system (meningitis, meningoencephalitis), the complicated after the common diseases (influenza, etc.).

Congenital disorders of the visual analyzer.
- Cataract is the most common form of congenital changes of organ of vision - clouding of the lens;
- Pigment dystrophy (degeneration) of the retina, is characterized by a narrowing of the field of view of up to its complete loss;
- Astigmatism - refractive errors, i.e., the refractive ability of an eye.
- Benign congenital brain tumors;
- Diseases of the mother in the early stages of pregnancy;
- Heredity. Form of - microphthalmia - rough structural change of the eyes, the characteristic decrease in the size of one or both of the eyes and the significant lowering of view;
- Anophthalmos - innate eyeless. Looking for reliable trading website in Philippines? Best forex copy trading in Philippines platforms. With Real reviews. Find out more.

Loss of visual field, caused by defeat of the front, chiasmal or rear portions of the visual path:

1. The anterior visual pathway.
- Central scotoma - (optic neuritis, toxic or metabolic neuropathy and optic nerve).
- Arched scotoma - (ischemia ocular nerve or a reaction to the increase in intraocular pressure, glaucoma).
- The loss of the upper half of the field of view - (anterior ischemic optic neuropathy nerve; thrombosis of the branch retinal artery).
- Central-cecal scotoma - (optic neuritis; toxic, metabolic or congenital neuropathy and optic nerve).
- The narrowing of the field of view (retinal degeneration, compression of the optic nerve).

2. Chiasma.
Bitemporal hemianopsia - (impaction chiasm tumor).

3. The rear optical path.
- Homonymous hemianopia - (a large one-sided defeat of the posterior segment of the visual analyzer).
- Right side upper quadrant hemianopsia - (unilateral expressed the defeat of the temporal part of radiatio optica).
- The preservation of only the Central part of the field of view - “tubular sight” (double-sided defeat of the visual zone of the crust).

Other causes of the violation of the visual analyzer:

I. Acute violations of the visual analyzer.
1. Monocular:
- Front optical path: ischemia or vascular occlusion (anterior ischemic neuropathy and optic nerve), temporal arteritis, occlusion of the Central arteries or veins of the retina; immunological reason (optic neuritis, papillitis); retinal detachment.
2. Binocular:
- Front optical path (less): double-sided front ischemic neuropathy and optic nerve.
- Rear optical path: a heart attack or hemorrhage into the substance of the brain; bleeding in the pituitary gland.

II. Subacute or chronic disorders of the visual analyzer.
1. Monocular:
- Front optical path: compression of the tumor (glioma shell of the optic nerve or meningiomas); predominantly unilateral manifestation of binocular vision disorders.
2. Binocular:
- Front optical path: (NB May be asymmetric and therefore seem to be monocular): clouding of the cornea, lens (cataract) or vitreous body; retinal degeneration; angiopathy retina (hypertensive, diabetic); lack of nutritional factors (deficit of vitamin B12), poisoning (methanol, ethambutol, quinine); infections of the retina (toxoplasmosis); congenital neuropathy and optic nerve disease (Leber); increased intraocular or intracranial pressure (glaucoma, swelling drive, pseudotumor of the brain).
- Rear optical path: primary or metastatic brain tumor or other surround process (abscess); immunological factors (multiple sclerosis); infections (progressive multi-center leukoencephalopathy): parasellar tumor (adenoma of the pituitary gland, craniopharyngioma).

III. Violations of the movements of the eyeballs:
1. Diplopia.
The most frequent symptom of violation of eye movements. The reason may be the defeat of oculomotor nerves (III, IV, VI), the neuromuscular synapse, the outer muscles of the eye.

2. Dysfunction oculomotor nerves.
In case of isolated lesion of the oculomotor nerves revealed the following features:
- III nerve - diplopia horizontal and vertical; restriction of movement of the eyeball up and down; ptosis of the upper eyelid; the pupil of the expanded response to the light is absent.
- IV nerve - diplopia vertical when you look down, in the calm of the eye is slightly raised up, compensatory inclination of his head.
- VI nerve - diplopia horizontally; the inability to turn the eye outwards; in the calm of the eye is turned inwards.

The most frequent causes of an isolated lesion of oculomotor nerves: diabetic and idiopathic angiopathy, together giving about 1/2 of all cases. Other common causes: aneurysm (especially III nerve), swelling (especially of the IV nerve), trauma (especially VI nerve). More rare causes: sinusitis, syphilis, herpes zoster, increased intracranial pressure (IV pair), DCDT(diffuse connective tissue disease) or vasculitis, meningitis, sarcoidosis.

For isolated lesion III nerve most important to make a distinction between a heart attack as a result of angiopathy, violation of innervation of the pupil, and compression rear trunk artery aneurysm, which is almost always reduces pupillary reflex.

3. Disorders of neuromuscular transmission.
Myasthenia gravis more than 60% of patients manifests eye symptoms, diplopia and (or) ptosis, and isolated eye symptoms is observed in more than 90% of patients. The reaction of the pupil always normal.

4. Eye of myopathy.
Diplopia as a result of the defeat of oculomotor muscles may be the result of the inflammatory process (orbital myositis), infiltration (thyroid ophthalmopathy), the shift of tissues (the trauma of the orbit).

5. Other disorders of movement of the eyeball include:
- Nystagmus: rhythmic eye movements; in itself nystagmus is not related to pathological symptoms, but may appear in disorders of the relations between Central and peripheral vestibular functions.
- Internuclear ophthalmoplegia - violation of the combined movements of the eyeballs with damaged medial longitudinal fasciculus in the trunk of a brain.
- Supranuclear paralysis of eye - loss arbitrary control over the movements of the eyes horizontally or vertically and is in violation of backward linkages from the cerebral cortex to the trunk.

Pathological processes such current diseases, like glaucoma, optic nerve atrophy, brain tumor for a long time without showing itself, may gradually worsen the condition of visual functions and then cause a sharp drop in the level of view.

To the ongoing violations of the view kinds of violations of the refractive the ability of the eye, causing the decrease of view, nearsightedness and farsightedness.

In myopia - violation of refraction of the eye is expressed in the fact that the rays coming from the object, are refracted not on the retina, and in front of it.

Farsightedness - the breaking of the rays coming from the object, is behind the retina.

As a result of these deviations are formed on the retina unclear, vague images.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a violation of the visual analyzer

  • Ophthalmologist

Are you experiencing violation of the visual analyzer? You want to know more detailed information, or you need an inspection? Please sign up on reception to the doctor! Doctors will examine you, examine the external signs and help to determine the disease the symptoms, they will consult you and provide the necessary assistance. You can also call the doctor on the house.

Do you feel visual analyzer disrupted? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

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Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.