Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - violation of intelligence

"Intellect" (from the Latin intellectus - understanding, knowledge) - in the broad sense of the totality of all the cognitive functions of the individual: from the sensations and perceptions to thinking and imagination; in the narrow sense - thinking.

The intellect is the main form of man's perception of reality.» This is the definition of intelligence is accepted in modern Russian psychology.

Violation of intelligence (mental retardation) is a persistent, irreversible violation of cognitive activity, due to organic lesion of the brain. These features: resistance, the irreversibility of the defect and its organic origin should primarily be considered in the diagnosis of children.

For the quantitative assessment of intelligence and mental development of the proposed various tests. The greatest distribution have received:

- Wechsler adult intelligence scale  (recycled) allows you to determine the IQ for verbal and non-verbal skills and overall IQ; it is designed for persons over 16 years of age.

- Wechsler intelligence scale for children (revised) also allows you to evaluate the verbal and non-verbal skills and General intelligence, but is intended for testing of children aged 6-16 years. The difference between IQ for verbal and non-verbal skills may indicate a perception disorder.

- Test Standford-Binet (4th edition) is intended for children over the age of 2 years and allows you to define the «mental age» and IQ. As the test includes mostly verbal tasks, he is not fit, if the child has specific communication disorders (e.g., autism, dyslexia) or underdevelopment (due to external factors) verbal functions.

- Denver test II allows you to evaluate the four sides of conduct: General motor skills, fine movement, speech, and personal and social skills. With its help you can quickly determine the psychomotor development of children of preschool age. IQ if this is not defined.

- The scale of early speech development (Early Language Milestone Scale - ELM) and scale audioverbal development (Central Linguistic Auditory Milestones Scale - CLAMS) are intended for mass surveys motor and sensory speech in children up to 3 years.

- Mental retardation can be mild, moderate, or severe.
1. The mild mental retardation ability to learn saved, IQ is 55-70. This category includes approximately 75% of all of mentally retarded persons. Their development is usually not exceed the level of the third-and fourth-grade school, but in a Mature age they are at a certain guardianship are capable of independent life.
2. At moderate mental retardation there might be some training skills, IQ is 45-55. Most of the persons belonging to this category, are able to acquire the skills of self-service, but they will never make any significant progress in education. They may live in a family and work in special workshops. Lonely is required constant care in the conditions of the boarding school. This group includes about 20% of all of mentally retarded persons.
3. In severe (IQ - 25-45) and very severe (deep) (IQ below 25) mental retardation patients are completely dependent on others. Some of them are chained to the bed, and all attempts of their socialization are unsuccessful. This group consists of no more than 5% of all of mentally retarded persons.
4. This classification has been used for many years and in many situations has been very useful. However, in recent years was proposed another classification, in accordance with which the mental retardation is divided into two degrees: light (IQ - 50-70) and heavy (IQ below 50).

- Weaknesses and limitations of the test for intelligence. Assessment of intelligence testing method has many serious shortcomings. The results of tests are often poorly reproducible, especially in children. In the tests did not take into account the specific cultural and social environment, the educational level, the presence or lack of interest and motivation. In addition, under certain mental diseases (especially for depression and schizophrenia) tests provide an underestimated the value of IQ. It remains unclear whether this is connected with the decrease of intelligence or lack of motivation. At the same time, the psychological testing is currently the only scientific method of assessment of the intellect, and with a clear understanding of all the limitations of existing tests they can be used for the survey and dynamic observation of patients with mental disorders.

Which diseases there is violation of intelligence

The reasons for violations of the intellect.
Underdevelopment of intellectual functions may arise due to many of the most diverse phenomena that affect the maturation of the child's brain.

Diseases, which are manifested mainly infringement of intelligence
1. Degenerative diseases of the brain
- Alzheimer's disease and pick's disease (lobar atrophy Peak)
- Progressive supranuclear paralysis syndrome (Steele-Richardson-Olszewski)
- Parkinson's Disease
- Disease Huntington (Huntington's chorea)
2. Multi-infarct dementia and Binswanger's disease
3. Chronic hydrocephalus
4. Spongiform encephalopathy
- A group of rare diseases, including Kuru and disease of the better-known Creutzfeldt-Jakob; these diseases are characterized by diffuse degeneration of the neurons of the cerebral cortex, basal nuclei and the spinal cord, the proliferation of glial cells and spongy appearance of bark.
5. Viral encephalitis
6. Neurosyphilis
7. Posttraumatic encephalopathy
8. Demyelinating diseases
9. Intracranial volume education
10. System diseases of the brain manifestations of
11. Avitaminosis
's organism is pellagra
- Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
- B12 Vitamin Deficiency
- Chronic metabolic disorder
- Endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism)
12. Intoxication (poisoning by heavy metals (lead, mercury, arsenic, manganese, and thallium) leads to dementia, ethanol - Marchiafava Bignami disease is a rare complication of alcoholism).
13. The medicines. Many drugs can cause intellectual disorders, reminiscent of dementia.
14. Mental diseases
A number of mental illness may be accompanied by mental disorders, caused by disorders as motivation, and cognitive functions.
- Depression

Causes of mental retardation
- Some chromosomal abnormalities can be diagnosed already on clinical data. These include trisomy 13, 18 and 21 of chromosome Klinefelter's syndrome and other, more rare diseases. In case of suspicion on these diseases, as well as children with mental retardation of unknown origin shown cytogenetic study.
- Syndrome of increased fragility of the X-chromosome is one of the most frequent causes of mental retardation. The syndrome is inherited in an X-linked dominant type; among males it occurs with a frequency of 1:1250, females - 1:2500. Clinical diagnosis of this syndrome is usually difficult, since the phenotypic manifestations are diverse and non-specific. Its classical features: large protruding ears, oval face, serving the lower jaw, the macroorhism - appear, as a rule, only after puberty. The earliest symptoms are usually delay the development and behavioural disorders, including hyperactivity and autism. Direct DNA analysis allows to identify a gene abnormality in the majority of patients and carriers. This anomaly is expanding segment of the gene FMR-1 locus Xq27.3 due to insert a repeating trinucleotide sequence (GTF). Clinical manifestations of the syndrome occurs if the box contains not less than 200 such sequences. Direct DNA analysis is a more advanced method of diagnosis of this syndrome than previous cytogenetic analysis. The latter, however, can be used, when to identify a genetic anomaly with the help of direct analysis cannot, in spite of the fact, that there are grounds to suspect a syndrome of increased fragility of the X-chromosome. Since the manifestations of the syndrome of non-specific, is recommended to carry out a study on the fragility of X-chromosomes in all of the children with mental retardation of unknown origin, even if the characteristics dismorphogenetic features are not available.

- Hereditary syndromes multiple malformations, with no identified chromosomal abnormalities are very diverse in terms of clinical manifestations; their description is beyond the scope of this book. These diseases can be classified on the basis of existing defects of development; in the diagnosis of helping special atlases.

- Diseases of the multifactorial inheritance are often found in children with mild mental retardation, especially in the socially disadvantaged groups of the population. Inheriting multiple pathological genes from both parents and once in the adverse social conditions, such children are experiencing considerable difficulties in training. They usually do not reveal any specific anomalies.

- To isolated coarse vices development of various etiologies include primary and secondary microcephaly, as well as various anomalies, related hydrocephalus. To determine the nature and extent of the defect used various methods of visualization, including CT and MRI.

- Violations of amino acid metabolism, as well as the exchange of organic acids and urea lie in the basis of a large group of diseases, which is clinically difficult to distinguish from one another, as well as from other degenerative diseases of the brain. After a period of normal development of the (sometimes extremely short, as, for example, in case of illness maple syrup) develop signs of diffuse lesions of the Central nervous system, including: delay or setback of mental and motor development, drowsiness (sometimes turning into a coma), epileptic seizures, ataxia, changes in muscle tone. In some diseases are observed characteristics, for example hypopigmentation and eczema with phenylketonuria, a specific smell of urine when the disease maple syrup. Early diagnosis is important because some of these diseases are treatable exception of or addition to eat certain substances. For diagnosis examine the content of amino acids and organic acids in the blood and urine.

- Lysosomic diseases accumulation are a group of inherited diseases, in which due to the lack of one or another enzyme in the lysosomes accumulate certain metabolites. In table. 3.2 lists the lysosomic diseases accumulation, the enzymatic defects and the main accumulating metabolites. Disease, primarily affecting the gray matter of the brain (for example, gangliosidosis), already at an early stage manifest dementia and epileptic seizures. On the contrary, at the primary defeat of white substance first, as a rule, appear ataxia and spasticity, and dementia and convulsions join later.

- Mitochondrial diseases. Describes the different variations of mitochondrial diseases proceeding with the defeat of the brain and spinal cord, muscles, peripheral nerves and other bodies. Specific enzymatic defect identified only some of them.
- Whether the disease is caused by a deficit of cytochrome C oxidase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. The disease usually begins at the age of up to two years and is manifested developmental delay, muscular hypotonia and weakness, Friedreich's, ophthalmoplegia, violation of the respiratory rhythm. The MRI revealed the characteristic change in the intensity of the signal from the basal nuclei and nuclei of the trunk. The content of lactate and pyruvate in the blood and CSF is usually elevated.
- Syndrome MERRF (Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibres - mioclonica epilepsy with spotty muscle fibers) is caused by a point mutation in the nucleotide pair 8344mt DNA. Syndrome is manifested myoclonus, Friedreich's, muscle weakness, dementia, stunting, hearing impairment, lactic acidosis. Biopsy muscles are identified spotted fiber (with a special application clusters of mitochondria in these appear as red spots).
- MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes - mitochondrial entsefalomiopatiya, lactic acidosis and stroke like episodes) is associated with a point mutation in the nucleotide pair 3243 MT DNA. Clinical manifestations include short stature, seizures, repeated vomiting, recurrent headaches, recurrent stroke like episodes, dementia. In the blood is detected lactic acidosis, in the muscles - spotted fiber.
- Dementia is also observed in Kearns-Sayre syndrome, which is characterized by the progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ataxy, muscle weakness, and degeneration of the retina, violations conductivity of the heart, lactic acidosis, increase of the level of protein in the CSF, spotted muscle fibers. The syndrome is caused by deletion TDC DNA.
- Olpersa disease connected with the lack of complex I the respiratory chain of mitochondria. It is characterized by early appear epileptic seizures, dementia, spasticity, blindness, impaired function of the liver. Lack of complex I observed and in other listed mitochondrial diseases and is, apparently, non-specific phenomenon.

- Peroxisomal disease
- Diseases caused by multiple failure peroxisomal enzymes. These include: the Zellweger's syndrome, which is characterized by a typical dis-morphogenetic and manifestations of the lack of peroxisome in various tissues; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, inherited in an autosomal recessive type and associated with the accumulation of fatty acids with the very long chain; Refsum's disease with increased content in the blood phytic acid and hyper pipecolic acid (as a Zellweger's syndrome).
- Diseases caused by deficiency of one of peroxisomal enzymes. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy usually starts in childhood, but sometimes symptoms occur in adolescence or adulthood. At first usually arise behavioural disorders and personality changes, then join progressive neurological disorders and signs of adrenal insufficiency. The CT and MRI revealed the defeat of the white matter of the brain, the blood and other tissues accumulate fatty acids, with the very long chain.
- In case of congenital infections (such as herpes, rubella, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus infection) along with mental retardation and there are other manifestations: the prenatal delay development, neonatal jaundice, petechiaea€, hepatosplenomegaly, microcephaly or hydrocephalus, intracranial intracerebral calcification. In children with congenital rubella often observed cataract, congenital heart disease. In cases of suspected congenital infection trying to isolate the virus from the urine of the newborn and, if possible, determine the total content of IgM and title-specific IgM antibodies. If this is not possible, then explore the titer of IgG in dynamics, in order to distinguish the active production of antibodies in the newborn from the passive transfer of maternal antibodies.
- Intrauterine harmful influence. Mental retardation can be caused by maternal factors (chronic placental insufficiency, toxicosis, diabetes, eating disorders, alcoholism, taking certain medicines) or adverse external influences (e.g., exposure).
- Perinatal brain damage may occur at the time of birth and during the first few days of life. These include hypoxic-ischemic lesions (often accompanied by intraventricular, periventricular and subarachnoid bleeding disorders), trauma, infection, toxic and metabolic disorders. All perinatal damage, except for injuries, often observed in premature.
- Periventricular hemorrhage (in germinal matrix) with the entry of blood into the ventricles of the brain, subarachnoid space occur primarily in premature. This is a frequent disease is diagnosed with the help of a CT scan or ultrasound of the 40-50% of premature infants weighing less than 1500 grams. In many cases it is asymptomatic, but the bleeding often lead to the death or the formation of heavy residual defects. In milder cases of most of the children survive, many of the subsequent develop normally, but some occur hydrocephalus, non intellectual and motor impairments. It is in these cases often find lower spastic paraplegia in the normal mental development.
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage is also observed in hypoxia. More often it occurs in premature infants, however there are also the full term of the children. The nearest and long-term prognosis vary considerably.
- Acute subdural hemorrhage is rare in infants. It may be observed at full term, often as a result of injury caused by the instrumental intervention in childbirth. In case of suspicion on this complication is shown subdural puncture.

- Other important causes of persistent neurological disorders developing in the perinatal period, meningitis, hypoglycaemia, bilirubin encephalopathy.
m. Congenital metabolic diseases without the enzymatic defect. This group includes a large number of hereditary diseases of the nervous system in which a specific enzymatic defect is not defined.
- Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (previously merged under the name of the Batten disease) are characterized by the accumulation in the neurons of fluorescent lipid-containing pigment and are mental retardation, convulsions, extrapyramidal disorders, blindness. Depending on the time of onset of symptoms, the following forms of the disease: infantile, late infantile, juvenile and adult (Kufs). The diagnosis may be suspected on clinical data. In the urine may increase the level of dolichol, biopsy of the skin identifies specific intracellular inclusions.
- Hereditary ataxia
Mr.. Postnatale causes of mental retardation include craniocerebral injury, Central nervous system infections, hypoxic-ischemic injury, tumors of the Central nervous system, toxic and metabolic disorders.
Cerebral palsy is a chronic nonprogressive disease characterized by severe motor impairments, often combined with epileptic seizures and mental retardation. Depending on the neurological symptoms allocate spastic, choreoathetosis tion, ataxic and mixed forms of infantile cerebral palsy. Motor disorders sometimes become apparent only in the second year of life, which greatly complicates the differential diagnosis of progressive neurological diseases. The most important cause of cerebral palsy is prematurity and its complications. The full term cerebral palsy usually is caused by intrauterine factors, and perinatal exposure do not play a leading role. That the cause of cerebral palsy is the perinatal asphyxia, you can only talk with a severe and prolonged asphyxia during birth, moderate, or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the perinatal period, multiple injuries of internal organs, as well as to the exclusion of other diseases.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a violation of intelligence

  • pediatrician
  • psychiatrist
  • neurologist
  • otolaryngologist
  • optometrist
  • neuropsychologist
  • psychologist, including the quantification of intelligence - test Wexler
  • speech therapist
  • endocrinologist (on indications)
  • dermatologist (on indications)

Are you experiencing violation of intelligence? You want to know more detailed information, or you need an inspection? Please sign up on reception to the doctor! Doctors will examine you, examine the external signs and help to determine the disease the symptoms, they will consult you and provide the necessary assistance. You can also call the doctor on the house.

Do you feel disrupted intelligence? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

Disorders by category

Disorders by alphabet

Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.