Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - violation of intellectual

The study of the violations of intellectual activity (mental retardation, mental retardation) is currently one of the most intensively developed in the direction of child psychiatry and clinical genetics.

Mental retardation is a General concept, including a very heterogeneous from the clinical point of view of the phenomenon. Common to all these different States of identifying at an early age and violations of adaptive behavior, connected with insufficient development of cognitive abilities. The term «mental retardation» includes all clinical and pathogenetic variants emerged in the early age of intellectual defect, and not only those, which are characterized by the predominance of violations of the abstract and logical thinking and a lack of progression of defect, i.e., mental retardation.

Which diseases there is violation of intellectual

To the present time it is established that there are two fundamentally different groups of the ethiological factors responsible for the formation of mental retardation.

The first group, leading to more severe mental retardation, includes a variety of pathological processes, significantly disorganize formation of the structure and functions of the brain. These factors have a so-called megaphonic action, i.e. sharply change the phenotype. Exogenous factors megaphonic circle refer to the so-called random adverse environmental impacts (injuries, neuroinfections, etc.).

The second group of the ethiological factors associated with a mild mental retardation. This genetic constitutional influence in conjunction with the environmental conditions that contribute to or hinder the realization of the genetic potential of the development of the intellectual functions. The same effects are involved, obviously, in the formation of intelligence and in the norm.

Often enough intellectual, violations occur when the hereditary metabolic diseases.

Some inherited diseases, especially diseases of the accumulation of lipids, cause profound mental degradation due to the extensive disorder cell and subcellular organization. However, in most birth defects exchange, accompanied by mental retardation, so common structural violations of the no.

The child at an early age the brain undergoes the stage of the strengthened growth, when the increase of its mass and the acceleration of other development processes reaches its maximum (spurt of growth). It was at this stage the number of neurons becomes the same as in adult fish, and there is a significant reproduction of glial cells. So the faster is myelination, accompanied by the inclusion of cholesterol, glykophospholipid and phospholipids. Myelin is an insulating material of paramount importance, which ensures proper function of a complex network of neurons and axons and dendrites. At the same time with the increase of the electrical activity and number of branches in the neurons of the developing brain significantly increasing the amount of neurotransmitters and gangliosides.

Explaining the pathogenesis of mental retardation in congenital violations of the exchange, it is necessary to imagine that the result of the metabolic defect can be either a persistent structural violation of, or reversible functional. The pathogenesis of these two types of consequences are different, but over a certain threshold of functional disorder should occur permanent structural defect.

The deficit of compounds formed in the metabolic chain far from the place of the unit, can lead to infringement of synthesis of one or more of the necessary brain substances. It is not excluded also, that the toxic effect of intermediate products exchange inhibits enzymatic synthesis of the same elements. So potentially there are three ways to violations of the functions of the brain with inborn errors of metabolism.

Direct toxic effects on the cellular elements of the brain as a result of inhibitory influence of the proximal in relation to the defect of intermediate metabolites in one or several ways of sharing.
Indirect toxic effects due to a lack of synthesis of the compounds, the distal in relation to the defect, but necessary for normal synthetic or regulatory pathways of exchange.

Different combinations of direct and indirect effects. It is quite probable, that in every exchange of the disease, when there is a violation of the functions of the brain, the latter is the result of it is a combination of direct and indirect toxic effects.

In addition, the brain amino acid composition of clearly different from other bodies. The brain tissue is significantly higher concentration of most of the amino acids and their metabolites, which presumably play a neurotransmitter role. In contrast to the latter, a number of amino acids in the norm are present in the brain at low concentrations. Such a dichotomy concentrations testifies to the pathogenetic role of increased content of the amino acids, the normal concentration of which in the brain are low.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a violation of intellectual

  • pediatrician
  • psychiatrist
  • neurologist
  • otolaryngologist
  • optometrist
  • neuropsychologist
  • psychologist, including the quantification of intelligence - test Wexler
  • speech therapist
  • endocrinologist (on indications)
  • dermatologist (on indications)

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Do you feel intellectual disrupted? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

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Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.