Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - violation of cognitive

To cognitive functions include: memory, attention, orientation in time and place, speech, intelligence, perception, and the ability to assimilate and conservation of motor skills.

As normal, and when the pathology, remember emotionally charged events. Therefore, in mild cases of forgetfulness for minor events. You can forget that where put the name of the recent friends, what to do during the day. It is sometimes difficult to focus or find the right word in the conversation. Often there are difficulties orientation to districts or for a cash settlements.

In those or other periods of the life of the memory and other cognitive abilities lead each one of us. Therefore, you should not attach much importance isolated cases of forgetfulness. However, if forgetfulness become Your constant companion, if it draws the attention of others and has a tendency to increase, you should consult a doctor-neurologist and check how it works Your brain. In the absence of the treatment of cognitive disorders can progress up to the point of dementia (dementia).

Neuropsychological testing as a method objectification of memory disorders.
Neurologists check cognitive functions with the help of special methods of investigation, which are called neuropsychological tests. Such tests are special exercises on memorization and reproduction of words or drawings, recognition of images, the performance of certain motor programmes, the solution of tasks, tests on the concentration and the concentration of attention. Such research allows you to accurately determine the state of cognitive functions and whether there are violations. In addition, this study will help to pick up the most effective treatment.

To evaluate the severity of cognitive impairment apply both quantitative neuropsychological methods and clinical scales, which are evaluated and cognitive, and other (behavioral, emotional, functional) symptoms of dementia and memory violation. One of the most complete clinical scales, are very often used in practice, is the Scale of the Overall Deterioration of the Global Deterioration Rating)

The Scale Of The Overall Deterioration Of The Global Deterioration Rating)
2 and 3 of this Scale correspond to the light cognitive disorder, and the 4 - 7 - dementia (according to ICD-10).

1 - there is neither subjective nor objective symptoms of violations of memory or other cognitive functions.

2 - very soft disorders: complaints against the loss of memory, most often two types of (a) - does not remember that where put; (b) forgets the names of close friends. In the conversation with the patient violations of memory not detected. The patient fully cope with work and independent in everyday life. Adequately alarmed available symptoms.

3 - soft disorders: structurally unstable, but clinically stated symptoms. At least one of the following: (a) the inability to find the road while traveling in an unknown place; (b) the comrades of the patient know about the cognitive problems; (C) the difficulty of searching for the words, and forgetfulness of the names is obvious for the household; (d) the patient does not remember what had just read; (e) does not remember the names of people with whom met; (e) where the put and could not find the important subject; (g) in neuropsychological testing may be a violation of the serial accounts.
Objectify cognitive disorders can be only with the help of careful research of the higher brain functions.
Violations may affect the work and in everyday life. The patient begins to deny the violation. Often mild or moderate anxiety.

4 - moderate violations of memory: the obvious symptoms. Main manifestations: (a) the patient is informed about the events happening around events; (b) violation of the memory about some of the events of life; (C) violated the serial expense; (d) impaired ability to find their way, to carry out financial operations, etc.

Usually no violation (s) of orientation in time and in his own person; (b) the recognition of close acquaintances; (C) the ability to find a familiar way.
Inability to perform complex tasks. Denial of the defect becomes the main mechanism of psychological protection. It is noted flattening of affect and avoidance of situations of concern. 5 - moderately severe violations of memory: the loss of independence. The inability to recall important life circumstances, for example, home address or phone number, the names of the members of the family (for example, grandchildren), the name of the school, which finished.
Usually disorientation in time or place. The difficulties of the series accounts (from 40 to 4 or from 20 to 2).

At the same time, the basic information about yourself and the surrounding safety. Patients will never forget his own name, the name of the spouse and the children. Not required assistance with food and natural items, although there may be difficulties when getting dressed.

6 - severe violations of the memory is not always possible to recall the name of a spouse or other person, from which there is a complete dependence in everyday life. Amnesia on most of the events of life. Disorientation in time. Difficulties account from 10 to 1, and sometimes also from 1 to 10. Most of the time is in need of assistance, although sometimes retained the ability to find a familiar way. Often the loop is broken "sleep-wakefulness". Almost always the memory of his own name. Usually the recognition of familiar people. Changes the personality and emotional state. May be: (a) delirium and hallucinations, for example, the idea that the husband changed, the conversation with an imaginary person or with his own reflection in the mirror; (b) obsession; (C) the sense of anxiety, agitation, aggression; (d) cognitive abulia - lack of purposeful activity as a result of loss of capacity for it.

7 - very severe violations of memory: Usually there is no speech. Incontinence of urine, need assistance in reception of food. Lost the basic psychomotor skills, including the skill of walking. The brain is no longer able to govern the body.
There are neurological symptoms decortication.

Which diseases there is violation of cognitive

Causes of cognitive impairment.
Cognitive impairment can be organic and functional. Functional cognitive disorders develop in the absence of the direct destruction of the substance of the brain.

Causes of functional cognitive disorders can be fatigue, nervous stress and overload, negative emotions. Functional cognitive impairment develop at any age. They are not dangerous and are always or significantly reduced after elimination of the reasons of violations. However, in some cases, the functional disorders may require medical treatment.

Organic cognitive impairment arise as a result of damage to the substance of the brain, one or another disease. Organic cognitive disorders are more common in older people, and are usually more stable. However, the proper treatment and in these cases, allows you to improve and prevents further increase of violations.

The most frequent causes of organic cognitive disorders are:
1. Lack of blood supply to the brain.
To insufficient blood supply to the brain cause diseases such as hypertension, cardio-vascular pathology and stroke. It is very important to diagnose these diseases and properly treat them to prevent the development of complications. Special attention should be paid to the blood pressure, maintaining the normal level of blood sugar and cholesterol.

2. Age-related decrease in the mass of the brain (atrophy).
At the age of atrophy of the brain, develop a more explicit violation of cognitive functions. This pathological condition has received the name of Alzheimer's disease, is a progressive disease, but the rate of rise of cognitive disorders vary considerably. As a rule, the symptoms are growing slowly and for many years, patients retain the independence and autonomy. Of great importance is adequate therapy of this disease, as modern methods of treatment allow to achieve improvement and long-term stabilization of the symptoms.

3. The cause of cognitive disorders can be:
- other diseases of the brain,
- cardio-vascular insufficiency,
- diseases of internal organs and metabolism,
"the abuse of alcohol or other poisoning.
In each case, the cause of forgetfulness sets the doctor-neurologist in the course of comprehensive clinical and instrumental examination.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a violation of cognitive

  • Psychiatrist

Are you experiencing violation of cognitive? You want to know more detailed information, or you need an inspection? Please sign up on reception to the doctor! Doctors will examine you, examine the external signs and help to determine the disease the symptoms, they will consult you and provide the necessary assistance. You can also call the doctor on the house.

Do you feel disrupted cognitive? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

Disorders by category

Disorders by alphabet

Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.