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Symptoms of disease - violation of blood circulation of the brain

There are two types of stroke - circulatory disorders of the brain - ischemic and hemorrhagic. The reason of the ischemic (up to 83% of all cases of stroke) is a blockage of the blood flow, often due to the formation of a blood clot in the artery, and the violation of due to this, the delivery of oxygen and nutrients in the relevant part of the brain. The cause of hemorrhagic stroke (about 17% of cases) is rupture of the walls of the vessel and a hemorrhage in the brain or the surrounding tissue.

Which diseases there is violation of blood circulation of the brain

The reasons of infringements of blood circulation of a brain

The main cause of violations of cerebral circulation (bleeding in the brain) is a high blood pressure. With his sharp rise may occur rupture of the vessel, the result of which is the output of blood in the substance of the brain and develops intracerebral a hematoma.

More rare cause of bleeding - the rupture of the aneurysm. Arterial aneurysm, attributable, as a rule, to congenital pathology is a sacculated protrusion on the side of the vessel. The walls of the bulge do not have such a powerful muscle and elastic frame, what is the normal vessel. Therefore, sometimes it is enough just to the relatively small jump of pressure, which is observed in completely healthy people with physical exertion or emotional stress, to the wall of the aneurysm rupture.

Along with sacculated aneurysms occasionally occur and other congenital anomalies of the circulatory system, creating a threat of a sudden hemorrhage.

In those cases, when the aneurysm is located in the walls of blood vessels, which are on the surface of the brain, break it leads to the development of not intracerebral, and subarachnoid (subarachnoid) hemorrhage, located under of a membrane surrounding the brain. Subarachnoid hemorrhage does not lead directly to the development of focal neurological symptoms (paresis, disorders of speech, etc.), but when it expressed cerebral symptoms: a sudden sharp («knife») headache, often with subsequent loss of consciousness.

Brain infarction usually develops due to blockage of one of the cerebral vessels or large (trunk) of a vessel of the head, in which the flow in the blood to the brain.

Main vessels are four: the right and the left internal carotid arteries, supplying most of the left and right hemisphere of the brain, and the right and left spinal artery, then merging into the main artery and thus increasing blood flow brain stem and cerebellum and the occipital lobes of the brain hemispheres.

Causes a blockage of the trunk and cerebral arteries can be different. So when the inflammatory process in heart valves (with the formation of infiltrates or in the formation of a wall surface blood clot in the heart) pieces of a blood clot or infiltrate can break off and with the blood flow to come to a brain vessel, the calibre of which is less than the size of the piece (embolus), and due to the sealed vessel. Embolus can become and particles decaying atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of one of the main arteries of the scalp.
This is one of the mechanisms of development of a heart attack brain - embolic.

Another mechanism of the development of heart attack - thrombotic: the gradual development of a thrombus (blood clot) in the location of the atherosclerotic plaque on the wall of the vessel. Atherosclerotic the plate, fill lumen of the vessel, leads to slower blood flow, which contributes to the development of a blood clot. The rough surface of the plaque favors in this place bonded (aggregation) of platelets and other elements of the blood, which constitutes the main frame of the forming blood clot.

As a rule, some local factors for the formation of a clot is often insufficient. The development of thrombosis by such factors, as a General slowing down of blood flow (and therefore thrombosis of cerebral vessels in contrast to the embolisms and bleeding usually develop at night, in a dream), increase in blood coagulability, increase of aggregation (adhesives) properties of thrombocytes and erythrocytes.
What is the coagulation of the blood, of the experience, everyone knows. Man accidentally cut your finger, it starts to pour blood, but gradually on the site of a cut formed a blood clot (thrombus) and the bleeding stops. Blood clotting is a necessary biological factor contributing to our survival. But as decreased, and increased coagulation threatens our health, and even our very lives.

Increased coagulation of leads to the development of thrombosis, reduced - to bleeding at the slightest cuts and bruises. Hemophilia, a disease, accompanied by decreased blood clotting and having a hereditary character, suffered many members of the Royal families of Europe, and among them the son of the last Russian Emperor, Tsarevich Alexei.

Violation of cerebral circulation of the blood may also be a consequence of the spasm (strong compression) of a vessel, coming as a result of a sharp reduction of the muscular layers of the vascular wall. A few decades ago spasm attached great importance to the development of disorders of cerebral circulation. In the present with a spasm of the cerebral vessels associated mainly infarction of the brain, which can sometimes develop after a few days after subarahnoidalnogo bleeding.

With frequent elevation of blood pressure may develop changes in the walls of small blood vessels that feed the deep structure of the brain. These changes lead to a narrowing, and often the closing of the blood vessels. Sometimes after another sharp rise in arterial pressure (hypertension) in the basin of the circulation of such a vessel is developing a small heart attack (called in the scientific literature «lacunar» heart attack).

In some cases, myocardial brain can develop without full blockage of the vessel. This is the so-called hemodynamic stroke. Imagine a hose, from which you irrigate the garden. The hose is clogged with silt, but the electric motor, dropped in a pond, works well, and jets of water is enough for the normal irrigation. But enough small kink hose or degradation of performance of the engine, as instead of a powerful jet from a hose begins to flow a stream of water, which is clearly not enough to well-watered land.

The same may occur under certain conditions and with blood flow in the brain. It's enough of a two factors: a sharp narrowing of the lumen of the artery or cerebral vessel filling his atherosclerotic plaque or as a result of its inflection plus a fall in blood pressure, coming from the deterioration (often temporary) work of the heart.

The mechanism of transient disturbance of cerebral circulation (transistor ischemic attack) in many respects similar to the mechanism of development of a heart attack the brain. Only coping mechanisms during the transient disturbances of cerebral blood circulation work quickly, and developed the symptoms within a few minutes (or hours) disappear. But it is not necessary to hope, that the compensation mechanisms will be always so good to cope with the violation. Why it is so important to know the causes of the violation of cerebral circulation, that enables to develop methods of prevention (prophylaxis) of recurrent disasters.

Thus, we can highlight the following factors of the risk of violation of blood circulation of the brain:
- Hypertension, a breach of the rheological properties of blood, ischemic heart disease, previous violations of cerebral circulation.
- Diabetes, Smoking, use of contraceptives.
- Double the risk of heart attack brain exists in violation of rheology of the blood and the violation of circulation in the peripheral arterial network.
- Stress.
- Excess weight with a concomitant arteriosclerosis.
- Lack of exercise: sport prevents the development of arteriosclerosis.
- Alcohol.
- Breach of lipid exchange.
- Diabetes.

As is evident violation of blood circulation of a brain?
Stroke is characterized by the sudden development of the following symptoms: Weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg, most often on one side of the body loss of balance or coordination of movements Expressed headache unclear reasons.

Consequences of the violation of blood circulation of a brain
The main consequence of a stroke is a continuing development of disability. About one-third of patients one year after stroke in need of assistance. Stroke is the most common cause of disability in the developed countries of the world. In addition, stroke is the second by the frequency of the cause of dementia (dementia). The common consequences of the stroke are also the deterioration of cognitive (sensor detection) functions of the brain, fast mental fatigue, depression, a violation of thinking and an ability to learn and implement practical and mental tasks.

What to do if you have symptoms of circulatory disorders of the brain?
Stroke is a medical emergency. It is necessary to immediately call for an ambulance. The faster the treatment is started, the greater the likelihood that we will be able to avoid the severe consequences of stroke.

The main achievement in the treatment of ischemic stroke was the development of new drugs to dissolve blood clots in the arteries and restore blood supply to the brain. Such tools (trombolitiki) are most effective if they are injected in the first 3 hours after the appearance of the first symptoms of stroke. Unfortunately, most of the patients come to the hospital too late, that does not allow to discuss the possibility of this method of treatment. However, there are other methods of treatment, that is why in any case, the patient should be taken to hospital as quickly as possible. In the hospital (usually a specialised neurological / stroke Department) will be established the exact diagnosis and immediately started treatment.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a violation of blood circulation of the brain

  • Neurologist

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Do you feel disrupted blood circulation of the brain? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

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