Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - circulatory disorders of the lower extremities

Blood, rich in nutrients and oxygen, moves through the arteries in the direction from the heart to the organs and tissues. If blood flow in arteries, supplying lower limbs, due to the progression of atherosclerosis is violated, then their tissues receive enough oxygen and nutrients and develops the disease, called «peripheral arterial disease», or the «disease of the arteries of the legs».

Violation of blood circulation in the lower extremities may occur feeling of discomfort or pain while walking. Pain may occur in various areas of the lower extremities: the sole of the foot, the shins, knees, thigh, waist, depending on the damage to the various departments of the arteries.

The risk of development and the first occurrence of the first clinical signs increases with age. In the age group over 70 years of peripheral arterial disease suffer one of three people. Smoking or having diabetes increases the risk of development of this disease.

Symptoms of poor circulation in the lower extremities:
It should be remembered that in rare cases, disease peripheral arteries of the lower limbs may be asymptomatic. The most common symptom of this disease, intermittent claudication. Intermittent claudication is discomfort or pain in the lower extremities, which arise when walking and disappear on its termination. Sometimes You may not feel expressed pain, but at the same time, You can greatly disturb the sense of weight, muscle cramps or weakness in the lower extremities. More quickly intermittent claudication occurs when lifting up. The progression of the disease intermittent claudication is beginning to occur to all over smaller distances.

Critical ischemia of lower extremities occurs when a strong violation of blood supply of tissues of the lower extremities. Due to the tissue of the lower extremities receive enough oxygen and nutrients, therefore, there is a painful feeling expressed intensity, with the localization of the hip and to the tips of her fingers even at rest, and growing at a minimum the physical load on the lower limbs.

With a severe degree of ischemia of the lower extremities may cause dryness of the skin, lower their temperature, pallor, as well as the emergence of trophic ulcers, expressed painful. In the absence of treatment will inevitably develops necrosis of soft tissues and gangrene of lower extremities.

Which diseases there is circulatory disorders of the lower extremities

The main causes of the violation of blood circulation in the lower extremities:

1. Obliterating atherosclerosis of the main vessels of the lower extremities is on the first place among other diseases of the arteries.
Affecting mainly men older than 40 years, it often causes severe insufficiency of blood circulation in limbs and exposes patients to the excruciating suffering and deprives disability. The process of localized mainly in large vessels (aorta, iliac artery or arteries of medium caliber (the femoral, popliteal).

Atherosclerotic the defeat of arteries are a manifestation of the General atherosclerosis. The main changes in atherosclerosis develops in intima (the inner shell of the arteries). Here are beginning to be postponed cholesterol and fat inclusion (lipids) - creating a yellowish spots on the inner wall of the vessel. In the circle of these centers is a young connective tissue, maturation of which leads to the formation of her plaques. On the plaques are deposited platelets and fibrin clots, salts of calcium. When the accumulation of lipids and calcium is a violation of blood circulation in the plaques, necrosis of which determines the appearance of a atheroma-of cavities filled with masses of crumbling. The wall of the artery in the field, this plaque has a hardness, easily crumble.

Crumbs shaped mass rejected in the lumen of the vessel. Getting with the blood flow into the underlying blood vessels, pieces of crumble atherosclerotic plaques can cause blockage (embolism) and lead to thrombosis of arteries limbs with the development of gangrene (necrosis). In addition, the narrowing of the vessel large plaque leads to a significant disruption of the blood flow, which reduces the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. During exercise, muscles do not receive adequate nutrition refuse to work, there is pain, which disappear only after the rest. Large plates contributes to the development of a blood clot at the site of the narrowing of the vessel, which can lead to acute deficiency of blood supply to the limbs and gangrene.

2. Obliterating endarteritis (thromboangiitis) - system a chronic inflammatory disease with a defeat of the small arteries of the extremities. This is a rather widespread disease, which occurs in all countries of the world, although with varying frequency. Men are sick in 10 times more often than women. The average age at which appears disease 30-40 years.

The exact cause of obliterating endarteritis is not set up to the present time. At the present time adopted the following hypotheses:
- infectious-toxic (including fungal infections);
- allergic (increased reaction on tobacco products);
- pathology of the blood coagulation system;
- atherosclerotic (atherosclerosis young age).

3. The defeat of vessels in diabetes mellitus.
At the present time in the world there are more than 150 million diabetes mellitus patients. The use of insulin and other hypoglycemic agents helped to significantly reduce mortality from metabolic complications and in the first place, among the deadly complications of diabetes, came out of the cardio-vascular complications.

In diabetes mellitus type 2 the defeat of arteries of lower extremities occurs in 3-5 times more often; the people free from the endocrine diseases. This fact allowed to assume that there is a genetic connection between diabetes and atherosclerotic processes in the arteries. The atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus much more aggressive, the frequency of critical ischemia considerably higher than in the rest of the population, About 40-50% of amputations of lower extremities on the arterial insufficiency perform in patients with diabetes.

The defeat of vessels in diabetes is divided into macroangiopathy (artery) and microangiopathy (capillaries and arterioles). Reduction of blood flow in the microvascular the mainstream on the background of destruction as the main arteries, and capillaries, leads to the development of ossification of the plots of the soft tissues of the foot. Contributes to this process of reduction of immunity and the acceding infection. The simultaneous presence of pathology of blood vessels, diabetic nerve damage, trophic disorders of the foot and its deformation caused the emergence of a specific term - "diabetic foot".

4. Varicose expansion of veins, thrombophlebitis.

Risk factors of disorders of blood circulation in the lower extremities:
- Smoking;
- Insular diabetes;
- High blood pressure;
- High cholesterol or triglycerides;
- High level of homocysteine (an amino acid that is present in the blood);
- Excess body weight more than on 30%.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a circulatory disorders of the lower extremities

  • Vascular surgeon

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Do you feel disrupted circulation of the lower extremities? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

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Map of the symptoms and the types of disorders is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.