Система Orphus

Symptoms of disease - Increase in breast cancer

For men

Gynecomastia is a benign increase in breast cancer in men with a diameter more than 2 cm. Gynecomastia is not an independent disease, but a symptom of some other disease. True gynecomastia is necessary to differentiate from the false gynecomastia, or lipomastii,in which the growth of mammary glands is due to fat tissue. When a true gynecomastia breast cancer increases as a result of hyperplasia of the equity of lactiferous ducts and hypertrophy of the connective tissue of the gland, i.e. there is an increase of glandular and stromal tissue. True gynecomastia is divided into physiological (newborns, adolescent and senile) and pathological.

The reasons for gyno:
- Physiological gynecomastia
- Medicines
- Hypogonadism
- Tumor
- Endocrine diseases (Thyrotoxicosis, Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly)
- Systemic diseases (Cirrhosis of the liver, chronic renal failure, HIV-infection)
- Chest injury
- Herpes zoster in the chest
- Obesity

For women

The mammary gland begins to develop intensively in the age of 12-16 years of age, when increases functional activity of adrenal and sexual glands. In the reproductive period all of the processes associated with the growth and development of the mammary glands (mammogenez), are hormone-conditioned. The main hormones, providing effect on mammary gland, are ovarian steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone), participate in the mammogenez well as the hormones of the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands and other biologically active compounds. The functioning of the mammary glands is closely associated with the menstrual function and is largely due to its peculiarities.

The provisional scheme mammogenez the following:
- Estrogens cause the proliferation of channels and the connective tissue of the breast.
- Progesterone - glandular the transformation of the alveoli.
- Prolactin contributes to the development of lactocytus, secretion of milk, is the main hormone, providing lactation.
- Thyroid hormones play an important role in morphogenesis and functional differentiation of epithelial cells of the breast.
- Insulin acts on the cells of the breast indirectly through other hormonal influence.
- Cortisol stimulates the formation of prolactin receptors in the breast and stimulates the growth of epithelial cells in synergy with prolactin.

A great influence on the growth of breast cancer in puberty have a estrogens. The first response to the increased level of estrogen is to increase the size of the breast and skin of the areola. The development of the estrogen receptor is impossible without participation of prolactin. It is known, that for full differentiation of the mammary gland is required synergy in action of insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, prolactin and growth hormone. As the formation of the menstrual function under the influence of the cycle devoted hormones (estrogen and progesterone) changes morphological structure of the breast.

In the genesis of the development of the mammary gland plays an important role prolactin. In conjunction with estrogens, progesterone, or other hormones prolactin controls not only the creation, but also the functional activity of the mammary glands, stimulates lactation. In experiments in vitro has been shown that hcg contributes to active growth of the epithelial cells, especially in synergy with progesterone. During pregnancy, these hormones potentiate proliferative activity and differentiation of tissues. Prolactin stimulates the synthesis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates milk. On the background of the physiological reduce levels of estrogen and progesterone after childbirth increases sharply lactogenic effect of prolactin. Outside of pregnancy functional hyperprolactinemia causes the occurrence of galactorrhea and anovulation.Pathological increased prolactin levels may be a cause of tension, pain, increase of mammary glands.

An important effect on the secretion of prolactin have estrogens. They actively communicate on the membranes of neurons arcuate the nucleus of the hypothalamus and inhibit the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase,which leads to decreased production of endogenous dopamine. Reduction of dopaminergic tone helps to increase the secretion of prolactin. In addition, estrogen can be considered the direct stimulation of secretion of prolactin, as they stimulate the expression of the gene responsible for the synthesis of prolactin. In addition, estrogens sensitized laktotrofy to the stimulating effects of other prolactin-releasing factors, for example, to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). prolactin stimulating properties are not only natural estrogens, and their synthetic analogs.

Currently specified a large number of factors contributing to the emergence and development of pathology of mammary glands. These include:

- hereditary factors (the presence of benign and malignant neoplasms in female relatives on the maternal line);
- neuroendocrine violations (violation of the controls of the reproductive cycle leads to the activation of proliferative processes in the hormone-dependent bodies, including in the tissues of the mammary glands);
- age over 40 years;
- artificial interruption of pregnancy. In the very early stages of pregnancy hormone effect causes expressed the restructuring of the gland hyperplasia adequacy general categorization of the component. Artificial interruption of pregnancy terminates the proliferative processes in the mammary glands, in connection with than hyperplastic tissue is exposed to the opposite development. These regressive changes are irregular, the development of the glands can buy a pathological character and be a starting point for the formation of diffuse and key mastopathy;
- obesity. It is known that the combination of obesity and diabetes, and arterial hypertension risk of cancer of the mammary glands increases three times;
- long psychological stress, which, as is known, leads to a change in the secretory function of the endocrine glands;
- late first pregnancy;
- absence, short or long period of breast-feeding;
- age at first birth (women gave birth to two children up to 25 years, have three times less risk of development of diseases of mammary glands compared with had only one child);
- early menarche and late menopause.

Which diseases there is Increase in breast cancer

  • The deficiency of testosterone different etiology
  • An excess of female sex hormones
  • Increase the level of prolactin (including on the backdrop of the admission of psychotropic drugs)
  • Mastopathy

Which doctor should I contact if there is a Increase in breast cancer

For men

  • Endocrinologist
  • Endocrinologist-andrologist

For women

  • Mammologist
  • Gynecologist
  • Endocrinologist

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Do you have Increase in breast cancer? You should be very careful approach to your health in general. People pay not enough attention to the symptoms of the disease and don't realize that these diseases can be critically dangerous. There are many diseases that in the beginning didn't manifest in our body, but in the end it turns out, unfortunately, it have already been treated too late. Every disease has its own specific features typical symptoms - called symptoms of the disease. Definition of symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of diseases in general. You just need a few times a year to be screened by a doctor, not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy spirit in a body and the organism in general.

Other symptoms by letter I -

Map of the symptoms is intended solely for educational purposes. We strongly recommend do NOT self-medicate; on all matters relating to the definition of the disease and ways of its treatment, contact your doctor. Md-tips is not responsible for the consequences of use information posted on the site.